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Garis depan

Garis depan


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Setelah dua minggu pelatihan di Etaples Base Camp, tentara dikirim ke Front Barat. Ini biasanya melibatkan perjalanan sekitar 60 mil. Ini biasanya merupakan kombinasi dari perjalanan kereta api dan beberapa jam perjalanan. Ini kemudian dikenal sebagai 'Up the Line'.

Orang-orang itu mengeluh pahit tentang cara mereka diangkut ke garis depan. Sebagai Private WT Colyer berkomentar: "Kami tidak mengharapkan untuk melakukan perjalanan kelas pertama atau bahkan kedua di kereta, tapi kami pikir kami mungkin memiliki kesempatan yang masuk akal untuk 3. Ternyata kami pergi sekitar kelas 7, yaitu di ternak biasa- truk dengan sedotan kecil di lantainya." Yang lain berkomentar bahwa pengalaman itu meyakinkannya bahwa: "Tentara sama sekali tidak mempertimbangkan laki-laki".

Begitu mereka sampai di garis depan, orang-orang itu menderita saraf. Harry Patch kemudian mengenang: "Anda berbicara dengan teman-teman Anda di tim. Selalu ada sejumlah obrolan. Gugup, Anda mungkin menyebutnya begitu. Dulu saya berpikir, apakah kita akan melewati besok, atau akankah kita mendapatkan paket? Saya naik antrian malam ini, apakah saya akan kembali? Gelap dan semuanya mungkin sunyi sekarang, tetapi apakah saya akan melihat matahari terbit di pagi hari? Dan ketika matahari terbit di pagi hari, akankah saya melihatnya? set di malam hari? Pada titik tertentu Anda menunjukkan emosi Anda. Itulah mengapa persahabatan kami sangat penting, karena saya takut kurang lebih sepanjang waktu saya di luar sana."

Perjalanan ke garis depan penuh dengan bahaya. Seperti yang ditunjukkan Guy Chapman: "Kami merobek diri kami sendiri-sendiri dari lumpur dan mengepung ke jalan, menyelam menuju celah gelap di tepi sungai yang lain. Senapan mesin itu melemparkan beberapa tembakan sembarangan melewati kami. Peluru-pelurunya pecah tajam di atas kepala. Kami jatuh. ke parit lain dan melanjutkan. Yang ini juga sempit, tapi lebih dangkal dan berlapis bebek. Kami bergerak lebih cepat. Kami bisa melihat cahaya naik dan turun di depan kami, dan suara-suara itu mengartikan diri mereka sebagai senapan dan senapan mesin yang menembak. "

Bangun jam 5.30 untuk berangkat ke Depan jam 6.30. Sarapan seharusnya jam 5.30 tetapi ada pekerjaan untuk mendapatkannya dan ketika kami melakukannya, hanya selai. Berparade pada pukul 6.30 dan berbaris ke dinding.

Kami tidak berharap untuk melakukan perjalanan kelas satu atau bahkan kelas dua di kereta, tetapi kami pikir kami mungkin memiliki peluang yang masuk akal untuk menjadi yang ketiga. di truk ternak biasa dengan sedikit jerami di lantainya.

Salah satu kereta terbesar yang pernah saya lihat: 38 gerbong dari semua ukuran dan bentuk: kami mengalami dua pukulan keras saat naik: kopling ditarik keluar, dengan sentakan yang menakutkan dan penundaan yang diakibatkannya selama setengah jam, sementara kami semua keluar untuk meregangkan kaki dan orang-orang membuat api dan memasak makanan di kaleng billy mereka.

Pada saat kami tiba di pinggiran Ypres, lalu lintas gerbong amunisi dan ambulans berhenti dan kami sendirian di jalan. Tiba-tiba kami menemukan mayat yang tergeletak di trotoar - itu adalah tubuh seorang petani. Tepat di atas jembatan kanal, sebuah gerobak kayu dan dua kuda yang hancur terlihat dan kami berjalan melalui darah hewan-hewan mulia ini saat kami melewati mereka di jalan. kami sekarang berada di kota yang tepat - di mana-mana hanya reruntuhan yang bisa dilihat - bukan sebuah rumah tetapi dihancurkan oleh peluru atau dilalap api. Dalam perjalanan kami melewati lebih banyak kuda mati, yang dalam banyak kasus dalam keadaan membusuk dan mengeluarkan bau busuk yang menakutkan.

Parit komunikasi hanya cukup lebar untuk menampung seorang pria dengan paket penuh, dan sekitar tujuh kaki dalamnya, sehingga penglihatan seseorang terbatas pada sepetak langit yang gelap dan bahu pria di depan. Lantainya ditutupi dengan kaki lumpur ketan yang tegang. Kami melaju perlahan melewati rawa-rawa, merenggut setiap kaki sebelum menurunkannya lagi.

Kegelapan jatuh. Setelah kira-kira setengah malam, pemandu itu berhenti dan berkata: "Ada jalan di sini. Lihat dan cepatlah melewatinya. Ada senapan mesin di atasnya. Lihat? Satu per satu."

Kami merobek diri kami sendiri-sendiri dari lumpur dan terbungkus ke jalan, menyelam menuju lubang gelap di tepi sungai yang lain. Kami bisa melihat cahaya naik dan turun di depan kami, dan suara-suara itu mengartikan diri mereka sebagai senapan dan senapan mesin yang menembak.

Tiba-tiba seseorang berkata: "Halo," dan Smith, komandan kompi saya, muncul. "Apakah ini garis depan? Saya bertanya. "Itu dia."

Anda berbicara dengan teman Anda di tim. Itulah mengapa persahabatan kami sangat penting, karena saya kurang lebih takut sepanjang waktu saya berada di luar sana.

Kami adalah bagian dari batalion, tetapi pada saat yang sama kami adalah kerumunan kecil kami sendiri. Anda dapat berbicara dengan teman-teman Anda tentang apa saja dan segalanya. Maksud saya, anak-anak ini bersama Anda siang dan malam, Anda berbagi segalanya dengan mereka. Kami masing-masing tahu dari mana yang lain berasal, seperti apa kehidupan mereka dan di mana mereka berada. Anda adalah salah satu dari mereka - kami saling memiliki. Ini hal yang sulit untuk dijelaskan, persahabatan di antara kami. Saya tidak pernah bertemu orang-orang mereka atau orang tua mereka, tetapi saya tahu semua tentang mereka, dan mereka tahu semua tentang saya dan saya. Tidak ada yang muncul, tidak peduli apa itu, yang tidak dapat Anda diskusikan dengan mereka dalam satu atau lain cara. Jika Anda mencari sesuatu, Anda selalu membaginya dengan mereka. Anda bisa menceritakan segalanya kepada mereka. Mereka akan mengerti. Surat dari rumah, ketika kami mendapatkannya, jika ada masalah di dalamnya, mereka akan membicarakannya dengan Anda.


Sejarah Perusahaan Sistem Garis Depan

Halaman ini menyoroti hanya beberapa tonggak dalam sejarah Frontline Systems, ketika teknologi Frontline's Solver diadopsi secara luas oleh pengguna dan dipilih oleh perusahaan perangkat lunak lain yang lebih besar, sering kali di atas teknologi pengembang lain dan bahkan perangkat lunak yang dikembangkan secara internal -- dan beberapa kesempatan ketika Frontline memajukan seni dalam optimasi dan teknologi simulasi itu sendiri.

Bagaimana-Jika Pemecah

Pada tahun 1990, Frontline memperkenalkan What-If Solver, add-in untuk Lotus 1-2-3 dan Symphony yang merupakan pendahulu pemecah spreadsheet modern. Bagaimana-Jika Solver memecahkan masalah linier dan nonlinier, dengan kecepatan yang jauh lebih besar daripada pesaing seperti pemecah di Lotus 1-2-3/G untuk OS/2, yang muncul pada waktu yang hampir bersamaan. What-If Solver memenangkan Pilihan Editor dalam kategorinya dalam kumpulan add-in spreadsheet PC Magazine tahun 1991. Pada tahun 1992, Frontline mengembangkan Edisi Siswa dari What-If Solver, didistribusikan oleh Addison-Wesley Publishing Company ke perguruan tinggi dan universitas untuk digunakan dalam program MBA.

Pemecah Excel

Pengenalan pemecah spreadsheet Lotus di 1-2-3/G memotivasi vendor spreadsheet lain untuk mengembangkan atau memperoleh pemecah mereka sendiri. Pada tahun 1990 -- jauh sebelum peluncuran Windows 3.0 -- Frontline memenangkan kompetisi di antara pengembang Solver pihak ketiga untuk membuat Solver berbasis OEM untuk Microsoft Excel 3.0. Pada tahun 1991, Windows 3.0 dan Excel 3.0 dengan Solver baru keduanya diperkenalkan, memulai periode adopsi dan pertumbuhan yang cepat untuk produk Microsoft. Frontline Systems terus bekerja dengan Microsoft di Excel Solver, melalui dan termasuk rilis terbarunya di tahun 2020-an.

Quattro Pro Solver

Borland International awalnya mengembangkan Solver pemrograman liniernya sendiri, yang disebut Pengoptimal, untuk Quattro Pro 2.0 untuk DOS. Namun pada tahun 1991, Frontline memenangkan kompetisi tingkat OEM lainnya untuk mengembangkan Solver baru untuk Borland, secara bersamaan untuk Quattro Pro 3.0 untuk DOS dan untuk Quattro Pro baru untuk Windows. Solver ini muncul di kedua versi Quattro Pro dan menggantikan Borland Solver sebelumnya. Pada tahun 1992 dan 1993, Frontline mengembangkan versi yang disempurnakan dari Solvers ini untuk rilis Quattro Pro baru. Kepemilikan Quattro Pro dipindahkan dari Borland ke Novell, Inc., yang dikontrak dengan Frontline untuk mengembangkan peningkatan Solver lebih lanjut untuk versi Quattro Pro berikutnya. Solver terbaru ini merupakan bagian dari Quattro Pro yang dipasarkan oleh Corel Corp dalam WordPerfect Suite.

Pemecah Teratai 1-2-3

Dalam 1-2-3 untuk Windows, Lotus meneruskan Solver dari 1-2-3/G melalui 1-2-3 Rilis 5, versi terakhir untuk Windows 16-bit. Dalam perencanaan untuk versi Windows 32-bit 1-2-3, Lotus mengakui manfaat dari program lima tahun Frontline (saat itu) peningkatan terus-menerus dalam kemampuan pemecah spreadsheet, dan meminta Frontline pada awal 1996 untuk mengembangkan Solver baru dan lebih baik. untuk 1-2-3 97 Edisi. Solver baru Frontline menggantikan Solver yang dikembangkan Lotus sebelumnya, dan dibawa ke depan di tahun-tahun berikutnya melalui 1-2-3 Millennium Edition. Ini memberikan kemampuan yang setara dengan Frontline's Solvers for Excel dan Quattro Pro.

Pemecah Mathcad

Pada tahun 1998, MathSoft, Inc., pengembang produk Mathcad populer yang menyediakan tampilan visual, pengeditan, dan daya komputasi untuk pengguna matematika teknis di Windows, mensurvei alternatif dan kemudian meminta Frontline untuk mengembangkan Solver baru dan lebih baik untuk Mathcad, dengan kemampuan optimasi terbatas untuk masalah linier dan nonlinier. Teknologi Solver Frontline menyediakan kemampuan pengoptimalan baru yang dibangun ke dalam Mathcad 8.0, ditambah produk tambahan yang dipasarkan oleh MathSoft yang disebut Mathcad Expert Solver. Solver ini telah diteruskan ke rilis produk terbaru MathSoft.

Pemecah Evolusi

Pada tahun 1997 dan 1998, vendor lain mengembangkan produk "Solver" untuk Microsoft Excel yang didasarkan pada algoritme genetika. Meskipun produk-produk ini ratusan kali lebih lambat daripada Frontline's Solvers yang menggunakan metode optimasi klasik, mereka memiliki keuntungan menangani fungsi Excel yang berubah-ubah, seperti IF dan CHOOSE, dan semakin mendekati (tetapi tidak selalu menemukan) optimal global daripada metode klasik. .

Sebagai tanggapan, Frontline memperkenalkan Premium Solver V3.5 pada tahun 1999, yang mencakup baik Pemecah cepat berdasarkan metode klasik dan Pemecah Evolusi baru yang canggih berdasarkan algoritme genetika (yang dengan sendirinya mengungguli Pemecah berbasis GA kompetitif ). Ini memberi pengguna "yang terbaik dari kedua dunia", karena mereka dapat menentukan model mereka sekali, bahkan menggunakan Excel Solver standar, lalu menerapkan semua metode ini untuk menemukan solusi terbaik. Evolutionary Solver telah terbukti sangat populer di kalangan pengguna. Sebuah versi khusus dibundel dengan lebih dari dua puluh buku teks, beberapa di antaranya mencurahkan cakupan yang luas untuk metodenya.

Solver Skala Besar

Karena jenis dan ukuran masalah pengoptimalan yang ingin diselesaikan pengguna semakin ambisius, Frontline menjawab tantangan tersebut dengan memperkenalkan Platform Premium Solver pada tahun 2000. Platform ini menyertakan peningkatan besar pada Simplex, GRG, dan Evolutionary Solvers dalam Premium Solver, dan juga menerima Solver Engine "plug-in" yang menggunakan metode khusus untuk masalah skala besar. Pada tahun 2004, keluarga Premium Solver telah berkembang menjadi 12 Solver Engine, memecahkan masalah mulai dari beberapa ribu hingga lebih dari satu juta variabel dan kendala. Sebagian besar algoritme dan metode paling terkenal untuk pengoptimalan linier, kuadrat, kerucut, cembung, nonlinier halus, dan tidak mulus kini tersedia di Excel, berkat Premium Solver Platform.

Pemecah Global Interval

Pada tahun 2002, Frontline membuat terobosan baru dengan meluncurkan Platform Premium Solver Versi 5 dengan Interval Global Solver baru -- sedang dalam proses menerbitkan hasil penelitian baru di jurnal akademik. Interval Global Solver adalah implementasi pertama yang didukung secara komersial dari berbagai metode baru (interval Branch & Bound, metode interval Newton, penutup linier, dan sejenisnya) yang andal dapat menemukan solusi untuk masalah optimasi global, dan semua solusi nyata dari sistem persamaan nonlinier -- suatu prestasi yang secara luas dianggap sebagai 'mustahil' dua puluh tahun sebelumnya, tetapi sekarang rutin bagi pengguna Excel.

Interpreter Spreadsheet Polimorfik

Untuk memungkinkan Interval Global Solver, Frontline harus mengambil langkah radikal mengganti -- dan memperluas -- inti Microsoft Excel dengan "rekalkulator" baru dan lebih kuat -- Polymorphic Spreadsheet Interpreter (PSI Technology) di Premium Solver Platform V5. Hal ini memungkinkan Platform untuk mengevaluasi model Excel dengan berbagai cara.

Selain menghitung nilai "angka biasa" untuk rumus Excel, Platform dapat menghitung interval seperti [1, 2] pada setiap tahap formula. Itu juga bisa menghitung turunan (gradien dan Hessians) untuk rumus Excel yang melibatkan ribuan variabel, melalui proses yang dikenal dalam literatur teknis sebagai diferensiasi otomatis. Dan itu dapat melakukan 'evaluasi diagnostik' rumus Excel, untuk menemukan kemungkinan kesalahan pengguna yang melibatkan penskalaan yang buruk atau fungsi yang tidak mulus.

Interpreter Spreadsheet Polimorfik yang kuat ini adalah 'pengaktif' tidak hanya untuk Interval Global Solver, tetapi untuk semua Solver Engine yang didukung oleh Platform. Misalnya, model nonlinier halus diselesaikan tujuh kali lebih cepat rata-rata, oleh semua Solver nonlinier di Premium Solver Platform V5.

Optimasi Cembung dan Kerucut

Pada tahun 2004, Frontline kembali membuat terobosan baru dengan meluncurkan Premium Solver Platform Versi 6 dengan tes otomatis baru untuk model cembung, dan SOCP Barrier Solver baru untuk optimasi kerucut. Tes konveksitas otomatis, yang sangat baru sehingga pertama kali dipresentasikan oleh Frontline pada konferensi penelitian pada musim panas 2004, tidak tersedia di perangkat lunak komersial lainnya -- meskipun ini membahas masalah yang sangat penting sehingga pasti akan ditiru. SOCP Barrier Solver adalah produk komersial pertama dari jenisnya dalam spreadsheet, dan salah satu pengoptimal kerucut pertama dan satu-satunya yang tersedia dalam perangkat lunak komersial apa pun.

Pemrograman kerucut orde kedua (SOCP), perpanjangan alami dari pemrograman linier (LP) dan pemrograman kuadratik (QP), memiliki aplikasi penting dalam desain keuangan/investasi dan teknik, terutama dalam menangani ketidakpastian dan risiko. Pengoptimalan cembung -- yang mencakup pengoptimalan kerucut -- adalah inti dari seluruh subjek pemecah masalah dan pengoptimalan. Perbedaan antara konveksitas dan non-cembung disebut sebagai "daerah aliran sungai yang hebat dalam pengoptimalan."

Simulasi Monte Carlo Berkecepatan Tinggi

Karena Microsoft Excel sejauh ini merupakan alat yang paling banyak digunakan untuk membangun model perencanaan bisnis, ini adalah "host" alami untuk alat yang memungkinkan pengguna untuk "menguji stres" ketidakpastian dalam model mereka melalui Simulasi Monte Carlo -- sebuah proses di mana banyak percobaan (tes 'bagaimana-jika' spreadsheet) dilakukan secara otomatis, mengambil sampel nilai dari distribusi probabilitas yang ditentukan pengguna. Meskipun sangat berguna, simulasi di Excel lambat, karena kebutuhan untuk melakukan ribuan penghitungan ulang model spreadsheet yang berpotensi besar. Pada tahun 2005, Frontline membuat terobosan baru dalam domain ini, menciptakan perluasan ke Polymorphic Spreadsheet Interpreter (PSI Technology) yang mampu melakukan simulasi Monte Carlo hingga 100 kali lebih cepat daripada pendekatan berbasis Excel sebelumnya, menggunakan "evaluasi vektor" inovatif yang nilai yang dihitung untuk semua percobaan Monte Carlo secara bersamaan.

Frontline melisensikan Teknologi PSI kepada Decisioneering Inc., vendor terkemuka perangkat lunak simulasi Monte Carlo, untuk menyediakan fitur Kecepatan Ekstrim dari Crystal Ball Professional 7.1, produk unggulan mereka untuk Excel. Pengguna dan pakar industri memuji hasilnya. Menurut David Vose, Partner di Vose Consulting dan otoritas yang diakui dalam pemodelan simulasi, "Kecepatan Ekstrim adalah kelegaan bagi kita semua yang memiliki model simulasi besar."

Simulasi Interaktif di Excel

Pada tahun 2006, Frontline lebih lanjut memanfaatkan Teknologi PSI untuk membuat Mesin Pemecah Risiko untuk Excel -- alat baru yang melakukan simulasi Monte Carlo instan setiap kali pengguna mengubah angka pada spreadsheet.

"Mesin Pemecah Risiko menyediakan Simulasi Interaktif secepat kilat di Excel yang saya bayangkan," kata Dr. Sam Savage, profesor konsultan di Universitas Stanford, dan pakar terkemuka simulasi Monte Carlo. "Ini memiliki potensi untuk melakukan ketidakpastian apa yang dilakukan spreadsheet untuk angka."

Risk Solver Engine juga merupakan produk perangkat lunak pertama yang mendukung dua ide baru Manajemen Probabilitas di perusahaan besar -- dengan dukungan langsung untuk Stochastic Libraries (SIP dan SLURP) dari uji coba Monte Carlo yang dibuat sebelumnya, dan Distribusi Bersertifikat, yang dibuat atau ditinjau oleh para ahli dan tersedia dalam bentuk yang mudah digunakan untuk pengguna akhir yang membangun model analisis risiko.

Optimasi Simulasi Berkecepatan Tinggi

Setelah mereka memodelkan ketidakpastian, pengguna ingin membuat pilihan untuk faktor-faktor yang adalah di bawah kendali mereka, untuk mencapai hasil terbaik pada rentang skenario masa depan yang dieksplorasi oleh simulasi Monte Carlo. Ini adalah masalah optimasi, dan vendor perangkat lunak simulasi lainnya telah berusaha untuk mengatasinya dengan menyediakan alat "optimasi simulasi" dalam paket mereka. Tapi alat ini telah sangat lambat, dan mampu menemukan solusi hanya untuk sangat ukuran terbatas model.

Pada akhir 2006, Frontline memperkenalkan Premium Solver Platform V7.0, dan pada awal 2007, Frontline memperkenalkan Risk Solver V7.0 untuk Excel -- perangkat lunak simulasi interaktifnya yang kuat dengan GUI, bagan, dan grafik lengkap. Premium Solver Platform dan Risk Solver bekerja sama untuk memberdayakan pengguna untuk memecahkan cukup besar masalah optimasi simulasi. Kombinasi ampuh Platform Premium Solver dan beberapa Mesin Pemecahnya dengan Pemecah Risiko seringkali sepuluh hingga seratus kali lebih cepat untuk pengoptimalan simulasi daripada produk Excel lainnya.

Pengoptimalan yang Kuat dan Lainnya

Optimasi simulasi hanyalah salah satu cara untuk menyelesaikan model optimasi dengan ketidakpastian. Pada bulan Oktober 2008, Frontline memperkenalkan Platform Pemecah Risiko -- the pertama produk komersial untuk menerapkan metode baru optimasi yang kuat, serta metode klasik untuk pemrograman stokastik. Pengguna sekarang dapat mendefinisikan model dengan ketidakpastian satu kali, dalam bentuk sederhana yang kompatibel ke atas dari Excel Solver, menganalisa strukturnya secara otomatis, dan menyelesaikan itu menggunakan metode apa pun yang berlaku.

Untuk pemrograman linier masalah dengan ketidakpastian -- sangat umum dalam praktiknya -- metode solusi baru Platform bisa sebanyak ribu kali lebih cepat daripada metode pengoptimalan simulasi di produk Excel lainnya. Lebih penting lagi, pengguna sekarang dapat menentukan model yang mencakup keputusan jalan (dibuat atas dasar "tunggu dan lihat", setelah ketidakpastian teratasi), dan selesaikan dengan menggunakan metode pemrograman optimasi dan stokastik yang kuat. Model seperti itu -- yang sering menghasilkan unggul solusi dengan nilai objektif yang jauh lebih baik -- bahkan tidak mungkin ditentukan di produk lain untuk Excel, apalagi dipecahkan.

Optimasi dan Simulasi Multi-Core

Pada tahun 2009, Frontline kembali menjadi yang pertama menawarkan berbagai algoritma paralel, memanfaatkan prosesor multi-core modern untuk memecahkan tantangan optimasi nonlinier, optimasi non-smooth, dan masalah optimasi simulasi lebih cepat dari sebelumnya, di Risk Solver Platform V9.5 for Excel , dan di Solver Platform SDK V9.0 untuk pengembang aplikasi yang bekerja dalam bahasa pemrograman. Frontline tidak hanya memparalelkan algoritme seperti metode Multistart untuk optimasi global dan Branch & Bound untuk masalah nonlinier bilangan bulat campuran -- ia telah menanamkan paralelisme secara mendalam ke dalam Interpreter Spreadsheet Polimorfiknya, yang mengeksploitasi banyak inti untuk menghitung turunan (gradien dan Hessians) untuk formula Excel secara paralel -- sangat mempercepat optimasi nonlinier.

Memecahkan Model Excel Di Luar Excel

Pada tahun 2010, Frontline mengambil langkah besar lainnya, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan dalam menerapkan model optimasi dan simulasi berbasis Excel untuk pengguna jarak jauh: Dengan menambahkan fasilitas parsing XML dan menyematkan Interpreter Spreadsheet Polimorfik di Solver Platform SDK V10.0, Frontline membuatnya memungkinkan untuk memuat buku kerja Excel dan menyelesaikannya di mana saja -- di desktop, di Intranet atau server Web, atau "di awan" -- bahkan di Linux. SDK memecahkan model pengoptimalan konvensional, model simulasi Monte Carlo, dan bahkan model pengoptimalan stokastik dan kuat "saat runtime". Ini memberi pelanggan fleksibilitas yang belum pernah ada sebelumnya untuk mengembangkan dan menerapkan aplikasi.

Membuat Teknologi Lebih Mudah Digunakan

Pada tahun 2011, Frontline berfokus untuk membuat teknologi canggihnya lebih mudah diakses oleh analis bisnis tanpa latar belakang formal dalam pengoptimalan atau simulasi. Mode Terpandu, pertama kali diperkenalkan pada 2010 dan disempurnakan pada 2011, membawa pengguna selangkah demi selangkah melalui diagnosis dan transformasi model otomatis PSI Interpreter, pemilihan Solver Engine otomatis, dan pemecahan masalah. Constraint Wizard baru membantu pengguna pengoptimalan baru menentukan batasan, sementara Distribution Wizard baru membantu pengguna simulasi baru memilih distribusi probabilitas, secara otomatis menganalisis formula dan data mereka di balik layar. Dan pekerjaan yang dimulai pada Evolutionary Solver membuahkan hasil pada tahun 2012.

GPU, Layanan Web, dan Lainnya

Pada tahun 2012, Evolutionary Solver diperluas untuk mencakup set lengkap metode berbasis algoritme genetika, dan set lengkap metode dari pencarian tabu dan pencarian sebar -- sementara juga menggunakan metode pengoptimalan linier klasik, nonlinier, dan bebas turunan. Frontline juga memelopori penggunaan teknologi GPU (graphics processing unit) untuk mencapai paralelisme masif dalam solusi tantangan masalah non-halus dan non-cembung di Evolutionary Solver. Platform Pemecah Risiko V12.0 ditingkatkan dengan algoritma dekomposisi stokastik, yang digunakan untuk memecahkan masalah linier stokastik terbesar pernah terpecahkan, pada setiap platform. Dan Solver SDK Platform V12.0 ditingkatkan dengan Web Service API dan kemampuan untuk "menyelesaikan model melalui kabel" -- dengan server berbasis cloud, dan klien dari Excel hingga browser web dan ponsel.

Pemecah untuk Office 365 dan SharePoint

Dengan Office 2013 dan SharePoint 2013, Microsoft memperkenalkan cara baru untuk membuat "Aplikasi" berdasarkan teknologi Web, yang dapat berjalan di Office desktop dan rekanan "Aplikasi Web". Frontline kembali menjadi yang pertama kali memperkenalkan Aplikasi "analitik", Aplikasi Solver untuk Excel 2013, Office 365 dan SharePoint 2013, yang muncul di Office Store pada Juli 2013. Aplikasi Solver gratis memberikan kemampuan pemecahan yang sama yang ditawarkan oleh Solver di Excel, yang telah dikembangkan Frontline untuk Microsoft lebih dari 20 tahun sebelumnya -- tetapi dapat digunakan di Aplikasi Web Excel di tablet atau ponsel, atau di browser Web apa pun. Model di Aplikasi Solver diselesaikan oleh server yang dioperasikan Frontline yang berjalan di Windows Azure, memanfaatkan API Layanan Web Platform SDK Solver.

Pemodelan Multi-Dimensi, Google Spreadsheet

Pada bulan Desember 2013, Frontline memperkenalkan lini produk Solver Platform V2014, sekali lagi memanfaatkan Teknologi PSI untuk menawarkan seperangkat alat baru yang kuat untuk membangun model multi-dimensi di Excel -- memberikan kemampuan pemodel spreadsheet yang sebelumnya hanya tersedia dalam bahasa pemodelan khusus atau kelas atas alat intelijen bisnis. Pengguna dapat membuat kubus multidimensi, berdasarkan PivotTable atau rentang sel reguler, menggunakan rumus Excel untuk melakukan penghitungan multidimensi, dan memperlihatkan hasil terhitung dalam PivotTable atau rentang sel reguler. Analisis bagaimana-jika dan sensitivitas, model optimasi, dan model simulasi semuanya dapat memanfaatkan pemodelan multi-dimensi.

Pada musim gugur 2014, Frontline memperkenalkan tiga alat analitik sebagai add-on gratis untuk Google Spreadsheet, spreadsheet web populer: Solver untuk pengoptimalan, Pemecah Risiko untuk simulasi dan analisis risiko, dan XLMiner Analysis ToolPak untuk peramalan dan statistik dasar. Yang juga baru adalah aplikasi Risk Solver, XLMiner Analysis ToolPak, dan XLMiner Data Viz untuk Excel Online.

2015: Bahasa Pemodelan RASON® di JSON

Pada tahun 2015, Frontline pertama kali memperkenalkan REST API tujuan umum untuk model analitik. Tidak seperti API lainnya, RASON® -- RESTful Analytic Solver™ Object Notation -- adalah bahasa pemodelan lengkap untuk pengoptimalan, simulasi/analisis risiko, dan (segera) data mining, tertanam di JSON (Notasi Objek JavaScript). Perangkat lunak RASON membuatnya 'sangat sederhana' untuk menggunakan dan memecahkan model analitik di Web dan aplikasi seluler. Dan Frontline merancang cara untuk terjemahkan secara otomatis banyak model optimasi dan simulasi berbasis Excel yang umum ke dalam bentuk RASON, langsung mengubahnya menjadi aplikasi web dan seluler.

2016: XLMiner SDK, AnalyticSolver.com

Pada musim semi 2016, Frontline memperkenalkan XLMiner SDK, Kit Pengembangan Perangkat Lunak lengkap untuk penambangan data dan pembelajaran mesin, dengan API berorientasi objek tingkat tinggi di C++, C#, Java, R, dan Python. Pada musim gugur 2016, Frontline pertama kali memperkenalkan platform pengguna akhir "titik dan klik" yang lengkap, berbasis cloud, untuk analitik tingkat lanjut yang beroperasi dengan rangkaian perangkat lunak desktop yang setara, menerima model buku kerja Excel, dan memberdayakan analis bisnis untuk membuat dan menyelesaikan masalah mereka. model sendiri, tanpa pemrograman apa pun -- menggunakan server RASON berbasis cloud milik Frontline sebagai mesin komputasinya. Pada akhir tahun, AnalyticSolver.com memiliki lebih dari 30.000 akun pengguna.

2017: Analytic Solver: Model di Power BI, Tableau

Pada musim semi 2017, Frontline memperkenalkan Analytic Solver®, add-in Excel komprehensif untuk analitik, dengan semua kekuatan pengoptimalan Premium Solver®, semua kekuatan simulasi Risk Solver®, dan semua penambangan data dan kekuatan pembelajaran mesin XLMiner® . Musim gugur 2017 adalah waktu yang menyenangkan dengan peluncuran kemampuan untuk membuat model langsung dalam bentuk "visual khusus" Power BI dan "ekstensi dasbor" Tableau -- yang berpuncak pada "demo panggung utama" untuk 14.000 penggemar di Tableau User Conference di Las Vegas. Versi baru Solver SDK dan XLMiner SDK menghadirkan kekuatan analitik baru bagi pengembang profesional.

2018: Alur Kerja Ilmu Data, Solver Academy

Di Musim Semi 2018, Frontline memungkinkan pengguna Analytic Solver yang bekerja di Excel untuk dengan mudah membuat alur kerja ilmu data multi-tahap, menggunakan ikon "seret dan lepas" yang terhubung melalui panah pada kanvas visual, atau fitur "rekam makro" untuk tindakan berbasis Excel -- menghadirkan kekuatan alat yang lebih mahal (mengklaim "melampaui Excel") langsung ke pengguna Excel. Pada tahun yang sama, Frontline memperkenalkan Solver.Academy, platform pendidikan baru dengan kursus interaktif online tentang pengoptimalan, simulasi/analisis risiko, penambangan data, dan pembelajaran mesin.

2019: Analytic Solver Cloud, Aturan Bisnis

Pada Mei 2019, Frontline pertama kali memperkenalkan versi "add-in Office modern" dari produk Excel terkemukanya, yang disebut versi Analytic Solver® Cloud -- ditulis ulang dari awal untuk menggunakan hosting web, HTML, dan API JavaScript untuk berinteraksi dengan Excel . Analytic Solver dan Analytic Solver Data Mining adalah dua add-in Office pertama untuk analitik yang diterbitkan di Microsoft AppSource, di mana setiap pengguna Excel -- yang menggunakan Windows, Macintosh, atau Excel untuk Web -- dapat dengan mudah "menyisipkan" dan menggunakannya dengan beberapa klik mouse. Pada tahun yang sama, Frontline memasuki pasar "aturan bisnis", dengan alat untuk membuat tabel keputusan berbasis aturan, yang kompatibel dengan standar DMN yang populer, baik di Analytic Solver maupun RASON.

2020: Dukungan Luas untuk Platform Daya

Pada awal 2020, Frontline memperkenalkan RASON® Decision Services, peningkatan besar dari REST API analitik yang dihosting Azure, beberapa tahun dalam pembuatan, dengan dukungan luas untuk Microsoft Power Platform -- termasuk Power BI, Power Apps, Power Automate (sebelumnya Microsoft Flow), dan Dynamics 365. Rilis ini juga memperkenalkan alur kerja keputusan analitik multi-tahap -- melampaui alur kerja ilmu data untuk menyertakan pengoptimalan, simulasi, aturan bisnis, dan lainnya -- dan dukungan konektivitas data yang kaya untuk Common Data Service, CData Cloud Hub, OneDrive for Business, dan titik akhir OData. Pada akhir tahun 2020, Frontline memperkenalkan peningkatan besar pada Analytic Solver untuk Excel dan rilis RASON baru yang menyatukan dua penawaran ini -- memungkinkan, untuk pertama kalinya, penyebaran titik-dan-klik model analitik berbasis Excel ke RASON cloud, dengan versi dan manajemen model.

2021: Kolaborasi dan Keamanan Cloud

Pada Januari 2021, Frontline memperkenalkan peningkatan besar lainnya dari RASON Decision Services untuk memungkinkan pengguna 'mempublikasikan', mengelola, dan mengatur model analitik sebagai layanan keputusan RESTful, dengan mudah memperbaruinya dengan data baru dan menyelesaikannya, dengan keamanan, privasi, dan kolaborasi baru yang luar biasa. dan fitur tata kelola, untuk perusahaan yang menggunakan Microsoft Azure dengan tim pembuat model analitik. Pada tahun yang sama, Frontline memperkenalkan versi baru Analytic Solver for Excel dengan dukungan untuk fungsi kustom yang dapat ditentukan pengguna dengan fungsi LAMBDA dan LET baru Excel, atau dengan "fungsi kotak" yang kompatibel dengan DMN 1.3.

Dan Masih Banyak Lagi Yang Akan Datang.

Frontline memiliki rencana menarik untuk lebih lanjut, kemampuan terdepan di industri untuk analitik prediktif, analisis risiko, dan pengambilan keputusan yang optimal di bawah ketidakpastian, menggunakan model kuantitatif di dalam dan di luar Excel . Periksa Blog kami dan halaman Siaran Pers kami untuk berita terbaru.


Sebelum Anda mengirimkan kesalahan, harap lihat Panduan Pemecahan Masalah kami.

Laporan Anda telah berhasil dikirim. Terima kasih telah membantu kami meningkatkan Video PBS.

Pendanaan untuk FRONTLINE disediakan melalui dukungan dari pemirsa PBS dan oleh Korporasi untuk Penyiaran Publik. Pendanaan besar untuk FRONTLINE disediakan oleh Ford Foundation. Dana tambahan … Selengkapnya

Pendanaan untuk FRONTLINE disediakan melalui dukungan dari pemirsa PBS dan oleh Korporasi untuk Penyiaran Publik. Pendanaan besar untuk FRONTLINE disediakan oleh Ford Foundation. Pendanaan tambahan disediakan oleh Yayasan Abrams, Yayasan Taman Yayasan John D. dan Catherine T. MacArthur dan Dana Jurnalisme FRONTLINE dengan dukungan besar dari Jon dan Jo Ann Hagler atas nama Yayasan Jon L. Hagler, dan dukungan tambahan dari Koo dan Patricia Yuen.


Berfokus pada pelanggan selama lebih dari 25 tahun

Grup Frontline dimulai pada tahun 1992 sebagai Manajemen OGCI dengan mengenali bagaimana proses standarisasi dapat menjadi platform yang diperlukan untuk Pembelajaran Organisasi — penerapan pengalaman proyek sebelumnya untuk peningkatan pada iterasi berikutnya, terlepas dari kontinuitas anggota tim atau pengulangan langsung. Mark Brooker baru-baru ini mulai melayani sebagai konsultan proses bisnis untuk departemen pengeboran Amoco, berdasarkan pengalamannya selama belasan tahun dalam operasi lapangan. Ford Brett melakukan konsultasi analisis proses teknis untuk pengeboran Amoco, berdasarkan dekadenya dalam penelitian pengeboran. Keduanya mulai menggabungkan pemikiran dan pengamatan mereka tentang kebutuhan yang muncul yang mereka lihat di industri minyak dan gas.

Sebagai mitra dalam Manajemen OGCI, kedua orang ini mengambil dua aspek kunci dari celah yang telah mereka identifikasi di industri. Brooker mulai memasok konsultan manajemen yang efektif untuk tim proyek dan departemen, dan Brett mulai mengerjakan pengembangan proses dan aplikasi perangkat lunak yang dapat efektif untuk manajemen proyek dalam lingkungan dinamis intervensi bawah permukaan. Dua Prinsip Panduan awal Garis Depan, Melayani Pelanggan Secara Kreatif dan Institut Loop Pembelajaran, secara langsung mencerminkan dua pendekatan layanan ini sejak awal Frontline.

Kemampuan perusahaan untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan dinamika bisnis minyak dan industri berbasis proyek lainnya telah membuat penawaran TFG untuk pelanggan tetap mutakhir dan relevan dengan persyaratan lingkungan bisnis saat ini. TFG menyesuaikan solusi dengan hasil, waktu, biaya, dan ruang lingkup yang diminta oleh tekanan saat ini pada bisnis Anda.

Since TFG's beginnings in the energy sector 25 years ago, the company has enlarged its well of expertise to include business process and software implementation in the legal community, the aviation and aerospace industries, and healthcare , IT, and cyber security.

Today, we’re doing the same thing we’ve always done—solving needs. Our efforts include meeting expanding industry, regulatory, financial, and corporate requirements through the development of customer-tailored process development and project management systems for operators, risk management, cyber security, and compliance.


Isi

The program debuted in 1983, with NBC anchorwoman Jessica Savitch as the show's first host, but Savitch died later after the first-season finale. PBS NewsHour ' s Judy Woodruff took over as host in 1984, and hosted the program for five years, combining her job with a sub anchor place on The MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour when Jim Lehrer was away. In 1990, episodes of Garis depan began airing without a host, and the narrator was left to introduce each episode.

Paling Garis depan reports are an hour in length, but some are extended to 90 minutes, 2 hours, or beyond. Garis depan also produces and transmits such occasional specials as From Jesus to Christ, The Farmer's Wife, dan Country Boys. [6]

Since 1995, Garis depan has been producing deep-content, companion web sites for all of its documentaries. The program publishes extended interview transcripts, in-depth chronologies, original essays, sidebar stories, related links and readings, and source documents including photographs and background research. Garis depan has made many of its documentaries available via streaming Internet video, from its website.

Will Lyman is the distinctive voice who has narrated most of the installments of the program since its inception in 1983. [7] However, certain reports have been narrated by David Ogden Stiers and Peter Berkrot.

The Choice Sunting

Since 1988, Garis depan has also aired "The Choice": a special edition aired during the lead-up to the presidential election every four years, focusing on the Democratic and Republican candidates contending for the office of President of the United States. An installment aired on October 14, 2008, using a dual-biography format for Barack Obama and John McCain. The 2008 documentary, produced by Michael Kirk, generated favorable reviews from The New York Times, which stated that the program helped viewers "gain perspective" about the "idea-oriented campaign", [8] and Los Angeles Times, which labeled it "refreshingly clear" and "informative". [9]

A subsequent episode aired on October 9, 2012, and featured the same dual biography tracing the lives and careers of incumbent President Barack Obama and his challenger, Mitt Romney. The following episode aired on September 27, 2016, and featured the biography of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. "The Choice 2020" is the most recent installment and aired on September 22, 2020, featuring Joe Biden and Donald Trump. [10]

The show is produced by the WGBH Educational Foundation, the parent company of WGBH-TV in Boston, which is solely responsible for its content. WGBH is the creator of The Documentary Consortium, with another 4 PBS stations, including WNET in New York and KCTS in Seattle.

In 2015, the creator and founding executive producer of Garis depan, David Fanning, retired after more than 32 years as executive producer of the program, and Raney Aronson-Rath succeeded him in senior grade. Fanning, however, remains editor-at-large of Garis depan as a founding member.

On September 14, 2017, the program launched its first-ever podcast called The Frontline Dispatch. The podcast is a production of PBS and WGBH in Boston alongside PRX.

Frontline/World is a spin-off program from Garis depan, first transmitted on May 23, 2002, which was transmitted four to eight times a year on Garis depan until it was canceled in 2010. It focused on issues from around the globe, and used a "magazine" format, where each hour-long episode typically had three stories that ran about 15 to 20 minutes in length. Its tagline was: Stories from a small planet.

Initially a co-production of WGBH, Boston and KQED, San Francisco, Frontline/World was later based in part at the University of California at Berkeley's Graduate School of Journalism, where the program's producers recruited a new generation of reporters and producers to the Garis depan program. [11]

Frontline/World also streamed stories on its website, which won two Webby awards in 2008 for its original program of online videos called "Rough Cuts." In 2005, the Overseas Press Club of America gave the program its Edward R. Murrow Award for the best TV coverage of international events, citing producers David Fanning, Stephen Talbot, Sharon Tiller and Ken Dornstein. The program broke new ground in 2007 by winning two Emmys one of these was for a broadcast story, "Saddam's Road to Hell", and the other was for an online video, "Libya: Out of the Shadow."

Garis depan has received generally positive reviews from television critics and parents of young children. David Zurawik of the Baltimore Sun wrote, "One of the finest hours of non-fiction TV that I have seen." [12] Vern Gay of hari berita wrote, "Bores down on hard truth. journalism at its best." [13] Tom Brinkmoeller of TV Worth Watching wrote, "Indispensible." [14] Sean Gregory of WAKTU wrote for the episode, League of Denial, "A first-rate piece of reporting." [15] David Zurawik of the Baltimore Sun wrote, "Superb and daring work." [16] Alasdair Wilkins of the A.V. Club wrote, "Hardest-hitting show on television." [17] Margaret Sullivan, the Media Columnist of Washington Post wrote for the episode, The Choice 2016, "Fair and completely riveting." [18] Vern Gay of hari berita wrote, "Authoritative and comprehensive." [19] David Zurawik of the Baltimore Sun wrote, "As good as non-fiction television gets." [20] Chris Barton of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "Unflinching and in-depth." [21]

Lainnya Garis depan reports focus on political, social, and criminal justice issues. Ofra Bikel, who has been a producer for Garis depan since the first season, has produced a significant number of films on the criminal justice system in the United States. The films have focused on issues ranging from post-conviction DNA testing, the use of drug snitches and mandatory minimum sentencing laws, the plea system, and the use of eyewitness testimony. As a result of the films, 13 people have been released from prison.

After the September 11 attacks, the White House requested a copy of "Hunting Bin Laden". In 1999, Garis depan had produced this in-depth report about Osama bin Laden and the terrorist network that would come to be known as Al-Qaeda in the wake of the 1998 United States embassy bombings. Following the September 11 attacks, Garis depan produced a series of films about Al-Qaeda and the War on Terrorism. In 2002, the program was awarded the DuPont-Columbia gold baton for the seven films.

Di 2003, Garis depan dan The New York Times joined forces on "A Dangerous Business", an investigation led by reporter Lowell Bergman into the cast iron pipe making industry and worker safety. OSHA officials credit the documentary and newspaper report with stimulating federal policy change on workplace safety. In 2004, the joint investigation was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service.

Producer Michael Kirk's Garis depan documentaries have won multiple awards. These films include "League of Denial: The NFL’s Concussion Crisis" (Peabody Award, 2013), [22] "Cheney's Law" (Peabody Award, 2007), [23] "The Lost Year in Iraq" (Emmy Award, 2006), "The Torture Question" (Emmy Award, 2005), "The Kevorkian File" (Emmy Award), and "Waco: The Inside Story" (Peabody Award). [24] [25]

Director Martin Smith has produced dozens of films for Garis depan, and won both Emmy and Writers Guild of America Awards. His 2000 film Drug Wars was the winner of the Outstanding Background/Analysis of a Single Current Story Emmy and The George Foster Peabody Award. [26] Additionally, Separated: Children at the Border, for which he was writer and correspondent, also won a 2018 Peabody Award, [27] presented at the 2019 awards ceremony.

Other notable producers of multiple Garis depan documentaries have included Sherry Jones, Marian Marzynski, Miri Navasky, Karen O'Connor, June Cross, Neil Docherty, Stephen Talbot, Raney Aronson, Rachel Dretzin, James Jacoby [28] and Rick Young.

As of July 2016, Garis depan has won a total of 75 Emmy Awards [29] and 18 Peabody Awards. [30] In 2020, Garis depan was also awarded an Institutional Peabody Award. [31]


Brazen intervention

Intervention in the case of the Somnath temple was brazen and more political with a view to arouse Hindus against Muslims. The facts are fully recorded in John William Kaye’s History of the War in Afghanistan ((1851): Volume 2, Richard Bentley: London). The East India Company ruled India until the British government took over in 1858 after the Mutiny.

Governor General Lord Ellenborough drew up an address to the princes and people of India. It was translated into “the Hindee and was published in its English dress” on November 16, 1842. Its text reads thus:

“From the Governor General to all the Princes and Chiefs, and People of India.

My Brothers and my Friends,

Our victorious army bears the gates of the temple of Somnath in triumph from Afghanistan, and the despoiled tomb of Sultan Mahomed looks upon the ruins of Ghuznee.

The insult of eight hundred years is at last avenged. The gates of the temple of Somnath, so long the memorial of your humiliation, are become the proudest record of your national glory, the proof of your superiority in arms over the nations beyond the Indus.

To you, Princes and Chiefs of Sirhind, of Rajwara, of Malwa, and of Guzerat, I shall commit this glorious trophy of successful war.

You will yourselves, with all honour, transmit the gates of sandal-wood through your respective territories to the restored temple of Somnath.

The Chiefs of Sirhind shall be informed at what time our victorious army will first deliver the gates of the temple into their guardianship, at the foot of the bridge of the Sutlej.

I have ever relied with confidence upon your attachment to the British government. You see how worthy it proves itself of your love, when, regarding your honour as its own, it exerts the power of its arms to restore to you the gates of the temple of Somnath, so long the memorial of your subjection to the Afghans.

For myself, identified with you in interest and in feeling, I regard with all your own enthusiasm the high achievements of that heroic army reflecting alike immortal honour upon my native and upon my adopted country.

To preserve and to improve the happy union of our two countries, necessary as it is to the welfare of both, is the constant object of my thoughts. Upon that union depends the security of every ally, as well as of every subject of the British government, from the miseries whereby, in former times, India was afflicted: through that alone has our army now waved its triumphant standards over the ruins of Ghuznee, and planted them upon the Balla Hissar of Caubul.

May that good Providence, which has hitherto so manifestly protected me, still extend to me its favour that I may so use the power now entrusted to my hands, as to advance your prosperity and secure your happiness, by placing the union of our two countries upon foundations which may render it eternal.

Kaye remarks: “No document that ever emanated from the bureau of a statesman has been overwhelmed with so much ridicule as this. It is still fresh in the recollection of men who dwelt in India at this time, how the authenticity of the proclamation was gravely doubted—how many, at first, declared their conviction that it was a newspaper satire upon the Napoleonic style of address which Lord Ellenborough had recently adopted and how at last, when it came to be known—thoroughly known and understood—that it was a genuine emanation from the ‘Political Department’, with the right official stamp upon it, such a flood of ridicule and censure was let loose upon it as had never before descended upon an Indian state paper. The folly of the thing was past all denial. It was a folly, too, of the most senseless kind, for it was calculated to please none and to offend many. It was addressed to ‘all the Princes and Chiefs, and People of India’. The ‘Brothers and Friends’ thus grandiloquently apostrophised, were a mixed family of Mahomedans and Hindoos. Upon the Mahomedans it was an open and most intelligible outrage. To the Hindoos, the pompous offer of the polluted gates of Somnath was little better than a covert insult. The temple to which it was to have been restored was in ruins, and the sacred ground trodden by Mahomedans. Looking at the effusion from the Oriental side, it was altogether a failure and an abortion. Among Europeans, worldly men scouted the proclamation as a folly, and religious men denounced it as a crime. It was said to be both dangerous and profane.”


The Frontline States

In 1975 Angola and Mozambique won independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved majority rule in 1980. Together with Botswana, Zambia and Tanzania these countries became known as the frontline states. South Africa was ringed by black majority governments on its northern border. The prospects for liberation seemed transformed.

But South Africa attacked its northern neighbours and destabilised their economies. It mounted raids on Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique, killing local residents and South African refugees.

CIVIL WAR IN MOZAMBIQUE AND ANGOLA

South Africa fomented civil war in Mozambique and Angola, destroying their infrastructure and causing huge loss of life. It provided weapons and logistical support to the dissident group RENAMO, which terrorised civilians over wide areas of Mozambique.

In Angola it launched repeated invasions with the aim of overthrowing the MPLA government. It helped the rebel movement UNITA carry on a prolonged civil war which only ended with the death of UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi in 2002. At least half a million people died in the war. Millions were displaced and the country’s economy was devastated.

SUPPORT FOR THE FRONTLINE STATES

Together with the Mozambique Angola and Guine Information Centre (MAGIC) and the Mozambique Angola Committee (MAC), the Anti-Apartheid Movement campaigned for practical support for the frontline states. It worked with the Namibia Support Committee to raise funds for Namibian refugees attacked by South African armed forces in Angola. It gave a platform to leaders like the future President of Mozambique, Armando Guebuza, and Education Minister Graça Machel. When UNITA refused to accept the result of the 1992 election in Angola, the AAM campaigned to raise awareness in Britain and the international community of ‘the world’s forgotten war‘.

SANCTIONS AGAINST SOUTH AFRICA

The AAM argued that the best way to support the frontline states was to campaign for international sanctions against South Africa. Ultimately, the frontline states would only be able to achieve peace and economic development after apartheid had been overthrown.

Wrapping paper produced by the workers cooperative AA Enterprises.


Hotel with a history

THE Great Eastern Hotel of Kolkata, one of the oldest hotels in the country, appears all set to change hands as a result of the West Bengal Left Front government's larger effort to restructure loss-making public sector undertakings (PSUs). There is little existing record of its ups and downs through the passage of time. If the walls of this landmark site on the map of Kolkata could talk, the tale would indeed be a fascinating one. In its 165 years it has seen many changes - from a time when bullock carts and horse-drawn carriages rolled along the wide half-empty streets outside its premises, to the present-day congestion and pollution that darkens its white faade from the days of opulence bordering on vulgar ostentation to its present condition that turns away respectable people. It has been a part of Kolkata's history for nearly half the city's life. In this period it has changed hands many a time. Now, once again, it is entering a new phase, with the State government clearing the process of its sale to private owners.

It all started when David Wilson, an Englishman who owned a confectionery shop in Cossitola, now Bentinck Street, decided to enter the hotel business. In 1840, Dainty Davie, as he was popularly known, set up the Auckland Hotel on the premises in the corner of the road running parallel to the British India Street and the Old Court House Street. According to Major Harry Hobbs, author of John Barleycorn Bahadur (1943), the hotel was set up in 1841. But an advertisement published in The Englishman and Military Chronicle in November 1840 says otherwise:

"The Auckland Hotel For Families and Single Gentlemen Opposite to Government House The above hotel is now open Pleasant, airy and well-furnished with A Table d' Hote for Gentlemen 19th November, 1840, D. Wilson & Co."

The hotel was named not after its proprietor, but the Governor General at that time, Lord Auckland (1784-1849). But locally, the hotel was known as Wilson's Hotel. Until 1850, the business was carried on in the name of D. Wilson and Co., a partnership firm with A. Clader, Gregory, C.H.B. Wilson, J.C. Mandy and G. Mandy. After 1850, a project to expand the hotel began. A report published on June 16, 1862 in the Calcutta Monthly Magazine said: "David Wilson purchased land on the Old Court House Street in 1851 with existing shops and carried on the business of a hotel keeper under the name of Auckland Hotel and Hall of All Nations."

Room 209, one of the exclusive suites which were always booked for lavish New Year eve parties thrown by the surviving members of the aristocracy until the 1970s.-

After nearly 15 years since its inception, on September 10, 1865, the hotel was floated as a company called the Great Eastern Hotel Wine and General Purveying Co. and was registered with limited liability under Act XIX of 1857 of the Legislative Council of India. Two years later, the management of the hotel took a landmark decision and inducted Peary Chand Mitter, more popularly known by his pen name Teck Chand Thakur (1814-1883), an eminent author and member of the British India Association's board of directors. Even W.C. Bonerjee, the first Indian president of the Indian National Congress, held shares worth Rs.5,000 in the company during 1890-1896.

The hotel continued to grow in popularity and all through maintained its social exclusiveness. Its exterior style and ornamentation matched its interior elegance, and it became the favourite haunt of the city's elite. Newspapers of those days reported in detail the lavish parties inside, as Great Eastern became the nucleus of high society activities. By 1883, the entire premises of the hotel were electrified. It was probably the first hotel in the country to be illuminated by electric lights. So exalted was its reputation, that for a while, the hotel was even referred to as the `Jewel of the East'.

A glimpse of what the hotel must have been like during this period can be found in Rudyard Kipling's short story "City of Dreadful Night" from the book The City of Dreadful Night and Other Places (1891): ". The Great Eastern hums with life through all its hundred rooms. Doors slam merrily, and all the nations of the earth run up and down the staircases. This alone is refreshing, because the passers bump you and ask you to stand aside. Fancy finding any place outside the Levee-room where Englishmen are crowded together to this extent! Fancy sitting down seventy strong to table d'hote and with a deafening clatter of knives and forks! Fancy finding a real bar whence drinks may be obtained! And joy of joys, fancy stepping out of the hotel into the arms of a live, white, helmeted, buttoned, truncheoned Bobby!" It is interesting to note that while Indian policemen patrolled most of the other areas of that part of Kolkata, British policemen were stationed outside the Great Eastern - an indication of the kind of people who would frequent it. A letter to the editor published in The Statesman in January 1887 further substantiates this: ". a European policeman is paid to stand opposite the Great Eastern Hotel, to turn bullock carts into by-lanes, out of the way of the Burra Sahibs."

The name Great Eastern Hotel Wine and General Purveying Co. continued till 1915, after which it was re-christened Great Eastern Hotel Co. Ltd. By the middle of the 1930s, the management of the company was entirely controlled by directors from Bengal. The hotel continued to flourish. In fact, during the Second World War, many soldiers of the allied forces passing through Kolkata were accommodated here. Ho Chi Minh is believed to have stayed in the hotel during a short visit in 1948.

If a hotel is to be judged by the frequency of celebrity guests, then throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Great Eastern ruled the roost as far as the hotel industry was concerned. Purnendu Ghosh was publicity assistant to the Government of West Bengal and has been associated with the Great Eastern Hotel since 1953. When contacted, the 78-year-old Ghosh was only too happy to talk about the bygone days. "As liaison officer to the State government I have had the privilege of meeting so many great people and heads of state, and for nearly 50 years I had been escorting them either to Raj Bhavan or to the Great Eastern. So closely was I associated with the hotel that there was a permanent room reserved for me, where I would often stay."

In those days, the entire entourage of a visiting head of state would be put up at the Great Eastern. For instance when Russian leaders Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin visited Kolkata in the late 1950s. Their party of nearly 70 stayed there.

Queen Elizabeth II's retinue also stayed here during her visit to the city in 1961. There is an interesting story relating to the Queen's visit. The hotel's chairman at that time, A.L. Bilimoria, owned a horse not known for its success at the races. That year, the Queen herself was to present the trophy at the Calcutta races. The chairman's horse surprisingly won the event. What remains unknown to most people of Kolkata is that a six-foot concrete replica of the cup that he received from the Queen stands hidden in a balcony in the back quarters of the hotel even today.

From the Darbar Hall, decorated and brilliantly lit, music used to drift out of the hotel until the wee hours of the morning.-

Purnendu Ghosh also has other interesting anecdotes to tell - ranging from the conduct of inebriated heads of states, to that of eccentric danseuses and publicity-hungry film stars. He recounted with a mischievous glint in his eyes, the occasion when a legendary Bengali film actress sent 12 bottles of champagne to cricketer M.L. Jaisimha after the latter had played an impressive innings in Eden Gardens. "It was my job to ensure the bottles were delivered to Jaisimha, and I couldn't resist the temptation, and quietly helped myself to two bottles of champagne," he said. With the Eden Gardens barely half-a-kilometre from the hotel, cricket teams, till the early 1970s would generally be accommodated in the Great Eastern.

It may seem a little unbelievable now, but that was the period when the Great Eastern was the venue for lavish New Year's parties hosted by the surviving members of the aristocracy, including the Rajas of Darbhanga and Coochbehar. Four of the largest and most exclusive suites - rooms 208, 209, 210 and 211 - were always booked for the occasions. From the massive Durbar Hall, decorated and brilliantly lit, music would drift out of the hotel until the wee hours of the morning.

Interestingly, this hotel in the 1950s was also referred to as the "Japani Hotel". According to Assistant Manager Surajit Das Gupta, "Japanese and Koreans really loved this hotel. Whether on business or on holiday, most of them preferred to be put up here. Perhaps it was the size of the rooms and the quality of the food here that attracted them. They loved our rice and naan." The cuisine in the hotel was famous all over the city. The speciality in the menu included Chinese food, roasted breast of chicken, baked boneless hilsa fish and of course, bread. "The bakery of Great Eastern was arguably the best on this side of the Suez. There was a time when people passing by the hotel could get a whiff of the smell of baking and vanilla," said Das Gupta. The Baruas from Chittagong (Bangladesh), famous in the region for their culinary prowess, were the cooks usually. Two of the most popular places in the hotel were the Sherry Bar and the restaurant Maxim's. These places were frequented by the rich and the famous in the city, and it was not surprising to spot matinee idols there occasionally.

THE decline started in the early 1970s, when bickering among the partners led to a financial crisis. As the hotel was tottering on the brink of closure, the Congress (I) government of West Bengal under Siddhartha Shankar Ray took over the management of the hotel through the Great Eastern Hotel (Taking over of Management) Act, 1975. The degeneration continued, until the Left Front government tried in vain to arrest it by nationalising it on July 17, 1980 under the Great Eastern Hotel (Acquisition of Undertaking) Act, 1980. The management was vested in the Great Eastern Hotel Authority, a statutory body comprising representatives of the Government of West Bengal.

After more than 30 years, the Great Eastern Hotel will once again fall in the hands of private owners. This is not the first time that it has been under the auctioneer's hammer the idea of privatising it surfaced as early as 1994, but owing to union pressure and many other reasons, the sale was stalled. This time, however, it might well and truly be off the back of the State government.

All the employees of the hotel have accepted the early retirement scheme, and most of the demands of the eight shortlisted prospective buyers have been met. Great Eastern is all set to embark on yet another journey in its history.

But there is another aspect that has to be considered before the final sale. The hotel building has been marked as having heritage value. It remains to be seen if the Heritage Commission of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation will allow it to be demolished.


Frontline has its origin in Frontline AB, which was founded in 1985, and which was listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange from 1989 to 1997. Hemen Holding (a company indirectly controlled by the largest shareholder and chairman of Frontline, John Fredriksen) became the largest shareholder of Frontline in 1996. In May 1997, a decision was made at the general meeting in Frontline AB to change its domicile from Sweden to Bermuda and to list its shares on the Oslo Stock Exchange. The change of domicile was executed through a share for share exchange offer from the then newly formed Frontline in Bermuda.

Under Fredriksen the company absorbed several other companies: London and Overseas Freighters (1997), ICB (1999), and Golden Ocean (2000). These takeovers made Frontline the world's largest tanker company, a position it has retained to the present day. [4] [5]

As of 31 December 2010, Frontline's tanker and OBO fleet consisted of 73 vessels. The fleet consists of 44 VLCCs, which are either owned or chartered in, 21 Suezmax tankers which are either owned or chartered in and eight Suezmax OBOs which are chartered in. Frontline also had five VLCC newbuildings and two Suezmax newbuildings on order and three VLCCs under their commercial management. The company's largest shareholder is Hemen Holding Ltd., a company indirectly controlled by the chairman of Frontline, billionaire John Fredriksen, Norway's highest net worth person.

The freight market is very volatile, with standard deviations of up to 70%. From an options perspective, this is a possibility for a very large up and downside—part of this downside can be hedged away via freight derivatives. AG-Japan clean and dirty are the most liquid routes traded in the derivatives market. Frontline has a very high dividend yield, both in cash and in Ship Finance (SFL) stocks for example, in late 2007 its annual dividend ran between 12 and 18%, depending on the fluctuating share price. SFL is an offshoot of Frontline the offshoot is estimated to have generated 25% gains to shareholders due to the different risk in Frontline and SFL. Golden Ocean Group (GOGL), a dry bulk carrier firm, was also spun off of Frontline and listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange. GOGL is a volatile stock, and as with Frontline, dry freight derivatives are available. In 2006, Frontline started a new Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) project, Sea Production.

In June 2007, Frontline sold its entire holding of 25,500,000 shares in Sea Production. The sale of the shares was in line with Frontline's strategy to remain a pure crude oil transportation company. Frontline and Sea Production will continue a strategic partnership with respect to conversion of crude oil tankers into oil storage and production units.


Frontline - History

An unprecedented account of the crisis inside the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex after the devastating earthquake and tsunami.

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Here is a brief overview of the history and spread of meth, the potential solutions to the crisis -- and why they weren't fully carried out.

A Japanese chemist first synthesizes amphetamine in a lab. During World War II, the Japanese and Germans use the drug to keep tank drivers awake and increase workers' productivity.

Amphetamine, popularly known as speed or uppers, becomes known as a drug used by athletes, college students, motorcycle gangs and truck drivers.

1980 Crystal Meth: Twice as Potent

Amphetamine's key chemical, Phenyl-2-propanone, is put under federal control.

However, the cooks making the drug for West Coast motorcycle gangs discover that ephedrine -- an ingredient found in over-the-counter cold remedies -- produces methamphetamine, better known as crystal meth, and it is twice as potent.

And, unlike other hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin, crystal meth can be made from household products. The only essential ingredient is ephedrine, or its cousin, pseudoephedrine, also found in many cold medicines.

Early 1980s Enter the Cartels

Mexican drug runners begin supplying ephedrine to the biker gangs' cooks. Within a few years, Jesus and Luis Amezcua, Mexican cocaine traffickers, become top meth dealers.

Home meth labs also begin spreading throughout the West Coast where cooks make the drug from household products such as paint thinner, acetone, and battery acid.

1986 First Attempt to Stem Meth

The DEA's number three man, Gene Haislip, authors legislation requiring companies making 14 kinds of chemicals used in making illegal drugs -- including ephedrine and pseudoephedrine -- to keep sales and import records. The bill would affect sellers of nonprescription asthma and diet pills containing ephedrine, and even more importantly, it would also affect makers of cold medicines containing pseudoephedrine, a $3 billion market. (Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are interchangeable for making meth.)

The pharmaceutical industry mounts a strong lobby against the proposed regulation.

1988 A Compromise With a Loophole

The pharmaceutical industry and the DEA agree on a compromise version of the DEA's proposed regulation two years earlier, and the bill is passed. However, it exempts from regulation any chemical -- such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine -- turned into a legal drug product. Importers of raw ephedrine and pseudoephedrine powder will have to keep records of their purchases and sales. Sellers of finished pills containing the chemicals will not.

Surveillance footage of a "super lab" in California's Central Valley.

Early 1990s Meth Explodes

The meth cooks switch to using pills, since pill form cold medications containing ephedrine/pseudoephedrine remain unregulated.

The Amezcua cartel in Mexico develops an additional source for ephedrine, buying bulk ephedrine powder overseas from some of the same nine factories (in Germany, Czech Republic, China, and India) from which the American pharmaceutical industry buys their supply of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine for cold medicines. Meth's purity doubles, and a flood of meth spreads eastward from the West Coast. The number of people entering rehab for meth skyrockets.

Robert Pennal, head of the Fresno (Calif.) Methamphetamine Task Force, starts seeing large meth labs in California's Central Valley. Four out of every five hits of meth consumed in the United States are coming from these industrial-scale labs.

March 1994 Accidental Discovery

A U.S. customs agent inadvertently discovers 3.4 metric tons of ephedrine on a plane traveling from Switzerland to Mexico. The powder comes from a factory in India, and the Amezcua cartel's source is exposed. The DEA learns that during one 18-month period, the Amezcua brothers smuggled 170 tons of ephedrine to the United States, enough for 2 billion hits of meth.

The United States asks foreign manufacturers to cease ephedrine exports to the cartel. The chemical becomes more scarce, and meth's purity on America's streets starts to plunge.

April 1994-August 1995 Another Loophole for Traffickers

Legislation passed in 1993 goes into effect in phases, requiring ephedrine pill sellers to register with the DEA, keep sales records, and report suspicious customers. However, the bill does not cover sellers of pseudoephedrine pills.

Pill bottles confiscated from a meth lab.

Meth cooks switch to using the unregulated pseudoephedrine pills, but the pills need to be broken down to remove the key ingredient. The cooks add flammable chemicals to the process, making their already toxic labs more susceptible to explosion.

Removing pills from blister packs (AKA "smurfing").

1996 Yet Another Loophole

After the DEA reaches a new compromise with the pharmaceutical industry, Congress passes a law regulating pseudoephedrine sales. Wholesale distributors of over-the-counter cold medicines would have to register for a DEA license. However, the law exempts from regulation cold remedies sold in foil "blister packs," which are considered harder for meth cooks to open in volume. (Within three years, blister packs of pseudoephedrine will be found in 47 percent of seized meth labs.) In addition, the deadline for distributors to start registering with the DEA is pushed back a year.

| Membaca "Lobbyists and Loopholes," Part Two of The Oregonian's award-winning series on meth dealing with the pharmaceutical industry's opposition to regulation.

1997 Bogus Fronts Supply the Trade

By the time the new DEA licensing law goes into effect in late 1997, meth traffickers have completed their switch to using pseudoephedrine. And the DEA is swamped by thousands of bogus companies applying for licenses and, short on staff, it begins issuing temporary permits. Before long, companies licensed by the government are making millions selling pseudoephedrine to the super labs.

A train crossing the U.S.-Canada border.

In June, Mexican authorities arraign Jesus and Luis Amezcua on charges of money laundering and racketeering. At the time, the DEA estimates they control 80 percent of the American methamphetamine market. The DEA has also found evidence that several other major Mexican cartels are now trafficking meth.

| Baca lebih lajut about Mexican Meth.

1999-2001 The Canadian Connection

Meth cooks in the Central Valley begin to grow desperate as the DEA tracks down the last bogus companies selling pseudoephedrine to meth labs. However, it takes two years before the DEA discovers the traffickers are getting a new supply of pseudoephedrine from bogus pharmaceutical companies in Canada, where pseudoephedrine is unregulated. Over a period of four years, Canada's bulk pseudoephedrine imports for the manufacture of cold pills quadruple.

2003 U.S. - Canadian Crackdown

Canada successfully curbs imports of pseudoephedrine to U.S. meth labs by adopting a licensing system similar to the United States'. Canadian law enforcement teams up with the DEA to make arrests in 10 cities and bring charges against three Canadian chemical companies.

The number of super labs in California drops, but more labs open in Mexico. A 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimates 12 million Americans over the age of 12 have tried methamphetamine in their lifetimes.

2004 The Meth Battle Heats Up

Mexico legally imports 224 tons of pseudoephedrine -- twice as much as they need to make cold medicine. The extra 100 tons is cooked into meth, then smuggled, like other drugs, across the border into the United States. As a result, meth on American streets is as pure as it's ever been.

The president's Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) releases its National Synthetic Drugs Action Plan, [PDF] summarizing the progress and concerns in battling methamphetamine, MDMA (Ecstasy) and other club drugs.

In April 2004, Oklahoma becomes the first state to pass a law placing limits on sales of pseudoephedrine to pharmacies and requiring retailers to sell pseudoephedrine products from behind the counter and ask purchasers to show I.D. and sign a register. (In previous years, the pharmaceutical industry had opposed similar legislation in Oregon, and it was defeated.)

Over-the-counter pseudoephedrine-based cold medicines.

2005 State/National/International Initiatives

To curb home-lab meth production, more than 35 states have passed legislation restricting sales of pseudoephedrine in some way, either by placing limits on the amounts purchased, requiring that the drug be sold within a certain distance from the register, requiring customers to request the item from behind the counter or from a locked case, or requiring them to sign a registry.

At the urging of its Meth Caucus, Congress passed the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 as part of the PATRIOT Revision Act. This legislation mandates that pseudoephedrine be put under lock and key in stores nationwide and that buyers register at the store counter. It will also toughen penalties against meth traffickers and enhance the government's authority to stem the flow of precursor chemicals (ephedrine/pseudoephedrine) from foreign manufacturers.

Deputy drug czar Scott M. Burns testifies that the administration's "strategy to reduce drug use in America is not focused on one illicit drug at the expense of another, but seeks to reduce all illicit drug use. However, officials at ONDCP, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Department of Justice realize that methamphetamine, illicitly used prescription drugs, and club drugs -- collectively referred to as synthetic drugs -- pose a unique challenge, and constitute an emerging problem."

The Mexican government admits that drug cartels artificially inflated demand for pseudoephedrine and agrees to reduce imports to a level legitimately needed for cold medicine. Mexico will also allow only licensed pharmacies with full-time pharmacists to sell medicines containing pseudoephedrine, reducing the number of retail outlets selling the drug from 51,000 to 17,000.

2006 The Most Abused Hard Drug on Earth

The U.N. World Drug Report calls meth the most abused hard drug on earth, and the world's 26 million meth addicts equals the combined number for cocaine and heroin users. America alone has 1.4 million users, and the number is rising globally, the highest concentration of addicts is in East and Southeast Asia.

The Mexican government recognizes there is a huge oversupply of pseudoephedrine coming into the country, and most of it is being diverted to the U.S meth trade. They decide to ban importation all together. With the Mexican cartels unable to get their hands on pseudoephedrine, the potency of the meth being smuggled into the U.S. plunges.

2009 California, Super Supplier

After Mexico's ban of pseudoephedrine, Mexican drug trafficking organizations look to California to ramp up meth production, knowing they can get supplies of pseudoephedrine throughout the West Coast. Unlike before, when super labs made 100 pounds or more in one reaction, meth is produced in smaller labs across multiple locations so that if one is taken down there is less at stake. California, known as a meth-exporting nation, is by some estimates producing more meth than the next five biggest producer states in the U.S. combined.

2010 Mississippi on the Ropes

In 2010, with a growing meth crisis on its hands and more dangerous meth-cooking practices, Mississippi becomes the second state after Oregon to make pseudoephedrine products prescription only. A few months after enforcing the law, officials see a sharp drop in meth lab seizures and meth-related crime.

| Explore Our Map: "Map Meth at the State Level" Which states have adopted some kind of law restricting the sale of pseudoephedrine?

2010 Is Meth a Nationwide Problem?

Telling lawmakers "Meth manufacturing is a scourge that has been all but eliminated in Oregon,” Senator Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) introduces legislation that would make pseudoephedrine a prescription drug nationwide. Law enforcement, and health and prevention groups support the measure.

More than a dozen heartland and southeastern states hit hard by meth abuse, consider prescription-only legislation. But heavy lobbying by the pharmaceutical industry stymie their efforts. Other states struggling with the problem begin using electronic tracking systems to monitor behind-the-counter sales. Kentucky is the first to use the system and more than two years in, officials say it’s failing to bring rates down.

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posted feb. 14, 2006 updated March 22, 2006 updated may 16, 2011

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Komentar:

  1. Johnnie

    Pesan yang tak tertandingi ini)

  2. Winston

    Really and as I have not guessed before

  3. Carvell

    sangat aneh

  4. Bret

    Menurut pendapat saya itu jelas. Saya tidak akan mulai berbicara tema ini.

  5. Jett

    ada kesalahan



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