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Jejak Kaki Berusia 14.000 Tahun di Gua Italia Ungkap Perilaku Manusia Kuno

Jejak Kaki Berusia 14.000 Tahun di Gua Italia Ungkap Perilaku Manusia Kuno


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Bukti merangkak dalam sistem gua Italia menyoroti perilaku manusia akhir Zaman Batu dalam kelompok, terutama ketika menjelajahi tempat baru, kata sebuah penelitian yang diterbitkan hari ini di eLife.

Penemuan Perayapan Manusia Purba

Gua Bàsura di Toirano dan jejak fosil manusia dan hewannya telah dikenal sejak tahun 1950-an, dengan penelitian pertama dilakukan oleh arkeolog Italia Virginia Chiappella. Dalam studi saat ini, yang dipromosikan oleh Archaeological Heritage Office of Liguria, peneliti dari Italia, Argentina, dan Afrika Selatan menggunakan berbagai pendekatan untuk menganalisis jejak manusia dan mengidentifikasi untuk pertama kalinya perilaku merangkak dari sekitar 14.000 tahun yang lalu.

Koridor - yang dikenal sebagai Corridoio delle Impronte - di dalam gua tempat para peneliti menganalisis beberapa cetakan manusia purba. (Isabella Salvador/ Penggunaan Wajar )

"Dalam penelitian kami, kami ingin melihat bagaimana manusia purba menjelajahi sistem gua yang menakjubkan ini," kata penulis pertama Marco Romano, Postdoctoral Fellow di University of the Witwatersrand, Afrika Selatan. "Secara khusus, kami berangkat untuk mengetahui berapa banyak orang yang memasuki gua, apakah mereka menjelajahi sebagai individu atau sebagai kelompok, usia, jenis kelamin, dan rute seperti apa yang mereka ambil saat berada di dalam gua."

Wawasan Tentang Perilaku Manusia Purba

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini, tim multidisiplin mempelajari 180 jejak dari dalam gua, termasuk jejak kaki dan tangan di lantai yang kaya akan tanah liat. Mereka menerapkan berbagai metode kencan modern, perangkat lunak yang menganalisis struktur trek, dan berbagai jenis pemodelan 3D.
"Bersama-sama, pendekatan ini memungkinkan kami untuk membangun narasi tentang bagaimana manusia masuk dan keluar gua, dan aktivitas mereka begitu mereka berada di dalam," jelas Romano.

Para peneliti menemukan total 180 jejak kaki dan jejak manusia purba yang dibuat sekitar 14.000 tahun yang lalu di sebuah gua di Italia utara. Ditampilkan di sini adalah tiga dari jejak kaki, dibuat pada permukaan yang berbeda di dalam gua. (Marco Avanzini/ Penggunaan Wajar )

Tim menentukan bahwa lima orang, termasuk dua orang dewasa, seorang remaja berusia sekitar 11 tahun, dan dua anak berusia tiga dan enam tahun, memasuki gua tanpa alas kaki dan menerangi jalan menggunakan tongkat kayu. Ini menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak kecil adalah anggota kelompok yang aktif selama Zaman Batu akhir, bahkan ketika melakukan kegiatan yang tampaknya berbahaya.

Para peneliti melaporkan bukti pertama merangkak di jejak kaki dari terowongan rendah - rute yang diambil untuk mengakses bagian dalam gua. Detail anatomi di jejak kaki menunjukkan bahwa para penjelajah berjalan tanpa alas kaki saat mereka menavigasi jalur ini.

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Manusia purba merangkak melalui terowongan gua yang rendah. (Isabella Salvador/ Penggunaan Wajar )

Analisis Perilaku Manusia Purba

Saat menganalisis berbagai sidik jari, tim menemukan bahwa beberapa di antaranya tampak 'tidak disengaja' dan berhubungan dengan penjelajahan gua saja, sementara yang lain lebih 'disengaja' dan menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas sosial atau simbolis terjadi di dalam ruang dalam. "Pemburu-pengumpul karena itu mungkin didorong oleh kegiatan yang menyenangkan selama eksplorasi, serta hanya kebutuhan untuk mencari makanan," tambah Romano.

Jejak manusia purba dapat memberikan wawasan rinci tentang perilaku mereka. (Isabella Salvador/ Penggunaan Wajar )

"Bersama-sama, hasil kami menunjukkan bagaimana pendekatan yang bervariasi untuk mempelajari jejak nenek moyang kita dapat memberikan wawasan terperinci tentang perilaku mereka," simpul penulis senior Marco Avanzini, kepala departemen geologi di MUSE -- Trento Museum of Science, Italia.
"Kami berharap pendekatan kami akan berguna untuk melukis gambar serupa tentang bagaimana manusia berperilaku di bagian lain dunia dan selama periode waktu yang berbeda."


Jejak Kaki Manusia Ditemukan di Arab Saudi Berusia 120.000 Tahun

Tujuh jejak kaki yang ditekan ke sedimen kering di dasar danau kuno di utara Arab Saudi mungkin menjadi saksi keberadaan manusia di wilayah tersebut sekitar 115.000 tahun yang lalu, lapor Maya Wei-Haas untuk Nasional geografis.

Para arkeolog yang menjelajahi Gurun Nefud melihat jejak-jejak itu saat memeriksa 376 jejak kaki yang ditinggalkan di lumpur badan air masa lalu oleh hewan-hewan seperti gajah raksasa yang sudah punah, unta, kerbau, dan nenek moyang kuda modern.

Sekarang, analisis baru diterbitkan dalam jurnal Kemajuan Ilmu Pengetahuan berpendapat bahwa manusia modern secara anatomis menciptakan tujuh jejak kaki antara 112.000 dan 121.000 tahun yang lalu. Jika dikonfirmasi, langkah kaki akan menjadi jejak tertua Homo sapiens pernah ditemukan di Semenanjung Arab, catat Bruce Bower untuk Berita Sains.

Jejak gajah dan unta yang ditemukan di situs Alathar (Stewart et al., 2020)

Temuan itu dapat membantu mengungkap rute yang diikuti manusia purba saat mereka keluar dari Afrika ke wilayah baru, menurut Nasional geografis.

Kebanyakan orang non-Afrika yang hidup saat ini memiliki nenek moyang yang meninggalkan benua secara massal sekitar 60.000 tahun yang lalu. Tetapi beberapa peneliti berpikir bahwa kelompok yang lebih kecil dari Homo sapiens berkelana di luar Afrika ribuan tahun sebelum migrasi massal ini, melakukan perjalanan melintasi Semenanjung Sinai dan ke Levant. Sarjana lain mengusulkan rute yang berpusat di Tanduk Afrika dan Semenanjung Arab.

Selain jejak kaki, dasar danau yang dijuluki Alathar (bahasa Arab untuk “jejak”)—menghasilkan harta karun 233 fosil, lapor Issam Ahmed untuk Agence France-Presse (AFP). Meskipun semenanjung itu sekarang menjadi rumah bagi gurun yang gersang, kemungkinan lebih hijau dan lebih basah pada saat jejak kaki dilemparkan, dengan iklim yang mirip dengan sabana Afrika.

“Kehadiran hewan besar seperti gajah dan kuda nil, bersama dengan padang rumput terbuka dan sumber daya air yang besar, mungkin telah membuat Arabia utara menjadi tempat yang sangat menarik bagi manusia yang bergerak antara Afrika dan Eurasia,” kata rekan penulis studi Michael Petraglia, seorang arkeolog di Institut Max Planck untuk Sains dan Sejarah Manusia, dalam sebuah pernyataan.

Jejak kaki manusia pertama ditemukan di Alathar (kiri) dan model elevasi digital yang membantu peneliti membedakan detailnya (kanan) (Stewart et al., 2020)

Meskipun situs itu mungkin pernah menjadi tempat berburu yang subur, para peneliti tidak menemukan alat-alat batu atau tulang binatang yang menunjukkan tanda-tanda pemotongan. Menurut pernyataan itu, kelangkaan bukti ini menunjukkan bahwa kunjungan manusia ke danau itu kemungkinan hanya persinggahan singkat.

Seperti yang dilaporkan Ann Gibbons untuk Sains Majalah, tim mengidentifikasi jejak kaki fosil sebagai manusia dengan membandingkannya dengan jejak yang diketahui dibuat oleh manusia dan Neanderthal, spesies hominin yang terkait tetapi terpisah. Tujuh jejak kaki yang ditampilkan dalam penelitian ini lebih panjang dari jejak Neanderthal dan tampaknya dibuat oleh hominin yang lebih tinggi dan lebih ringan.

Tim tidak dapat sepenuhnya mengecualikan Neanderthal sebagai calon pembuat jejak kaki. Tetapi jika penanggalan terbukti benar, atribusi seperti itu tidak mungkin, karena sedimen tepat di atas dan di bawah jejak berasal dari periode yang disebut interglasial terakhir, ketika iklim di wilayah tersebut relatif hangat dan basah.

“Baru setelah interglasial terakhir dengan kembalinya kondisi yang lebih dingin, kami memiliki bukti definitif untuk Neanderthal pindah ke wilayah tersebut,” kata penulis utama Mathew Stewart, seorang ahli biologi di Institut Max Planck untuk Ekologi Kimia, dalam pernyataannya. . “Jejak kaki, oleh karena itu, kemungkinan besar mewakili manusia, atau Homo sapiens.”


Jejak merangkak di gua Italia memberi petunjuk tentang perilaku sosial manusia purba

Bukti perayapan dalam sistem gua Italia memberi pencerahan baru tentang bagaimana manusia Zaman Batu akhir berperilaku sebagai sebuah kelompok, terutama ketika menjelajahi lahan baru, kata sebuah penelitian yang diterbitkan hari ini di eLife.

Gua Bàsura di Toirano dan jejak fosil manusia dan hewannya telah dikenal sejak 1950-an, dengan studi pertama dilakukan oleh arkeolog Italia Virginia Chiappella. Dalam studi saat ini, yang dipromosikan oleh Archaeological Heritage Office of Liguria, peneliti dari Italia, Argentina, dan Afrika Selatan menggunakan berbagai pendekatan untuk menganalisis jejak manusia dan mengidentifikasi untuk pertama kalinya perilaku merangkak dari sekitar 14.000 tahun yang lalu.

"Dalam penelitian kami, kami ingin melihat bagaimana manusia purba menjelajahi sistem gua yang menakjubkan ini," kata penulis pertama Marco Romano, Postdoctoral Fellow di University of the Witwatersrand, Afrika Selatan. "Secara khusus, kami berangkat untuk mengetahui berapa banyak orang yang memasuki gua, apakah mereka menjelajahi sebagai individu atau sebagai kelompok, usia, jenis kelamin, dan rute seperti apa yang mereka ambil saat berada di dalam gua."

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini, tim multidisiplin mempelajari 180 jejak dari dalam gua, termasuk jejak kaki dan tangan di lantai yang kaya akan tanah liat. Mereka menerapkan berbagai metode kencan modern, perangkat lunak yang menganalisis struktur trek, dan berbagai jenis pemodelan 3D. "Bersama-sama, pendekatan ini memungkinkan kami untuk membangun narasi tentang bagaimana manusia masuk dan keluar gua, dan aktivitas mereka begitu mereka berada di dalam," jelas Romano.

Tim menentukan bahwa lima orang, termasuk dua orang dewasa, seorang remaja berusia sekitar 11 tahun, dan dua anak berusia tiga dan enam tahun, memasuki gua tanpa alas kaki dan menerangi jalan menggunakan tongkat kayu. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak kecil adalah anggota kelompok yang aktif selama Zaman Batu akhir, bahkan ketika melakukan kegiatan yang tampaknya berbahaya.

Para peneliti melaporkan bukti pertama merangkak di jejak kaki dari terowongan rendah - rute yang diambil untuk mengakses bagian dalam gua. Detail anatomi di jejak kaki menunjukkan bahwa para penjelajah berjalan tanpa alas kaki saat mereka menavigasi jalur ini.

Saat menganalisis berbagai sidik jari, tim menemukan bahwa beberapa di antaranya tampak 'tidak disengaja' dan berhubungan dengan penjelajahan gua saja, sementara yang lain lebih 'disengaja' dan menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas sosial atau simbolis terjadi di dalam ruang dalam. "Pemburu-pengumpul karena itu mungkin didorong oleh kegiatan yang menyenangkan selama eksplorasi, serta hanya kebutuhan untuk mencari makanan," tambah Romano.

"Bersama-sama, hasil kami menunjukkan bagaimana pendekatan yang bervariasi untuk mempelajari jejak nenek moyang kita dapat memberikan wawasan terperinci tentang perilaku mereka," simpul penulis senior Marco Avanzini, kepala departemen geologi di MUSE - Trento Museum of Science, Italia. "Kami berharap pendekatan kami akan berguna untuk melukis gambar serupa tentang bagaimana manusia berperilaku di bagian lain dunia dan selama periode waktu yang berbeda."

Makalah 'A multidisipliner approach to a unique Palaeolithic human ichnological record from Italy (Bàsura Cave)' dapat diakses secara bebas online di https://doi. org/ 10. 7554/ eLife.45204. Konten, termasuk teks, gambar, dan data, bebas digunakan kembali di bawah lisensi CC BY 4.0.

Kontak penulis untuk informasi lebih lanjut:

Marco Avanzini, penulis senior [email protected]

Elisabetta Starnini, koordinator proyek multidisiplin [email protected]

Emily Packer, Pejabat Pers Senior
eLife
[email protected]eLifesciences.org
01223 855373

eLife adalah organisasi nirlaba yang terinspirasi oleh penyandang dana penelitian dan dipimpin oleh para ilmuwan. Misi kami adalah membantu para ilmuwan mempercepat penemuan dengan mengoperasikan platform untuk komunikasi penelitian yang mendorong dan mengakui perilaku yang paling bertanggung jawab dalam sains. Kami menerbitkan penelitian penting di semua bidang kehidupan dan ilmu biomedis, termasuk Biologi Evolusioner, yang dipilih dan dievaluasi oleh para ilmuwan yang bekerja dan tersedia secara online tanpa penundaan. eLife juga berinvestasi dalam inovasi melalui pengembangan alat sumber terbuka untuk mempercepat komunikasi dan penemuan penelitian. Pekerjaan kami dipandu oleh komunitas yang kami layani. eLife didukung oleh Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Max Planck Society, Wellcome Trust dan Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. Selengkapnya di https://eLifeilmu.org/tentang.

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Cetakan kecil

Dengan mempelajari bentuk, ukuran, dan distribusi jejak kaki, para peneliti berusaha mengumpulkan apa yang terjadi selama perjalanan kuno melintasi tanah berlumpur. Pembuat trek utama bisa saja seorang wanita berusia 12 tahun atau lebih, atau mungkin seorang pria muda, berdasarkan perbandingan panjang jejak kaki dengan manusia modern. Setidaknya di tiga titik di sepanjang jalan, jejak kaki kecil bergabung dengan jalur utama, bukti seorang anak berusia kurang dari tiga tahun.

Jarak rel menunjukkan orang itu bepergian sekitar 3,8 mil per jam. Meski bukan joging, ini akan menjadi langkah yang tergesa-gesa mengingat kondisi berlumpur dan beban berat, catat Hatala.

Di beberapa titik, langkah para musafir itu luar biasa panjangnya, seolah-olah sedang melangkah atau melompati rintangan. "Bisa jadi genangan air," kata Reynolds. "Bisa jadi kotoran mammoth basah."

Namun, anak itu hanya digendong satu arah. Selama perjalanan ke utara, jejak kaki kiri sedikit lebih besar, yang mungkin akibat menggendong balita di satu pinggul. Di antara trek menuju utara, ada juga contoh kaki trekker meluncur di permukaan berlumpur, kaki menyeret untuk membuat cetakan berbentuk pisang. Namun di arah selatan kembali, perbedaan ukuran di trek ini tidak terlihat, dan selip jauh lebih jarang, menunjukkan pejalan kaki itu tidak terbebani.

Para peneliti sebelumnya telah menyarankan bahwa perbedaan sidik jari kaki kanan dan kiri bisa menjadi bukti membawa beban, tetapi sering spekulasi. Studi baru menawarkan sedikit lebih banyak bukti: "Dalam kasus khusus ini, Anda melihat jejak kaki seorang anak tiba-tiba muncul di tengah jalan," kata Hatala.

Jejak binatang membantu tim memperkirakan kapan petualang itu berjalan melintasi daratan. Setelah perjalanan ke utara, mammoth dan sloth raksasa melangkah melintasi jalan setapak yang baru, sementara jejak manusia menuju selatan memotong jejak binatang. Hamparan ini menunjukkan bahwa semua cetakan dipasang dalam beberapa jam sebelum lumpur benar-benar kering. Kehadiran makhluk-makhluk yang sekarang sudah punah ini bersama manusia menunjukkan bahwa petualangan kuno itu terjadi setidaknya 10.000 tahun yang lalu.


Inti benua

Penelitian di Arab Saudi adalah bagian dari upaya selama lebih dari satu dekade yang dipimpin oleh Petraglia untuk menggali sejarah hominin di Semenanjung Arab dan lebih memahami langkah pertama spesies kita keluar dari Afrika.

Kebanyakan orang non-Afrika saat ini dapat melacak akar genetik mereka ke gelombang H. sapiens yang berkelana dari benua sekitar 60.000 tahun yang lalu. Tapi mereka bukan yang pertama pergi. Dini H. sapiens kemungkinan mengalir keluar dari Afrika puluhan ribu tahun sebelumnya. Rahang atas yang ditemukan di Israel menunjukkan bahwa manusia tiba di wilayah tersebut pada 180.000 tahun yang lalu. Dan penemuan tengkorak manusia yang kontroversial namun menakjubkan di Yunani berasal dari petunjuk berusia sekitar 210.000 tahun dari gelombang yang bahkan lebih awal.

Seperti cerita biasa, penjelajah kuno ini kemungkinan besar menyeberang dari timur laut Afrika ke Semenanjung Sinai saat ini, menyebar ke Levant—wilayah di utara Arab yang mencakup Israel, Suriah, Lebanon, Yordania, dan wilayah Palestina—sebelum bermigrasi ke Eropa dan Asia. Tetapi beberapa menyarankan manusia purba malah menyeberang di dekat Tanduk Afrika ke Semenanjung Arab selatan, menyebar di sekitar tepi Samudra Hindia.

Di persimpangan kontinental yang penting ini terletak Arabia—sebuah bentangan luas daratan yang telah lama tidak dipelajari. “Jika kita berpikir tentang batu loncatan keluar dari Afrika, kita perlu tahu lebih banyak tentang Arab,” kata Petraglia.

Petraglia dan timnya sudah mulai mengisi celah itu, menggali petunjuk saat semenanjung yang sekarang gersang sangat berbeda. Padang rumput yang rimbun menyelimuti lanskap yang dilintasi oleh sungai dan dikelilingi oleh sekitar 10.000 danau, menjadikannya tempat yang memikat bagi penjelajah hominin. Alat-alat batu telah ditemukan tersebar di banyak tepi danau kuno, namun pembuatnya tetap tidak diketahui.

“Itu telah membuat kami bertahan selama bertahun-tahun,” kata Petraglia.


Melestarikan Engare Sero untuk masa depan

Beberapa jejak kaki manusia mengarah ke bukit pasir terdekat di utara. Kami sengaja meninggalkan jejak kaki yang terawetkan di bawah gundukan pasir yang belum digali untuk saat ini, sampai kami dapat bekerja sama dengan pemerintah Tanzania untuk mengembangkan rencana konservasi untuk melacak dan membatasi erosi jejak kaki.

Abu yang mengeras sangat tahan terhadap erosi dari air dan angin. Namun, berkat Program Digitalisasi 3D Smithsonian’s, kami telah dengan cermat menangkap data tiga dimensi untuk setiap jejak kaki sehingga kami dapat melacak kerusakan alami pada cetakan dari waktu ke waktu. Anda bahkan dapat mengunduh file 3D dari beberapa jejak kaki Engare Sero, jika Anda ingin mencetak salinan 3D Anda sendiri.

Artikel ini diterbitkan ulang dari The Conversation, situs berita nirlaba yang didedikasikan untuk berbagi ide dari pakar akademis.

William E.H. Harcourt-Smith menerima dana dari Leakey Foundation, National Science Foundation, dan Wenner-Gren Foundation.

Briana Pobiner menerima dana dari National Science Foundation, Leakey Foundation, dan Wenner-Gren Foundation.


Melestarikan Engare Sero untuk masa depan

Beberapa jejak kaki manusia mengarah ke bukit pasir terdekat di utara. Kami sengaja meninggalkan jejak kaki yang terawetkan di bawah gundukan pasir yang belum digali untuk saat ini, sampai kami dapat bekerja sama dengan pemerintah Tanzania untuk mengembangkan rencana konservasi untuk melacak dan membatasi erosi jejak kaki.

Abu yang mengeras sangat tahan terhadap erosi dari air dan angin. Namun, berkat Program Digitalisasi 3D Smithsonian&rsquos, kami telah dengan cermat menangkap data tiga dimensi untuk masing-masing jejak kaki sehingga kami dapat melacak kerusakan alami dari cetakan dari waktu ke waktu. Anda bahkan dapat mengunduh file 3D dari beberapa jejak kaki Engare Sero, jika Anda ingin mencetak salinan 3D Anda sendiri.

William E.H. Harcourt-Smith, Rekan Peneliti, Divisi Paleontologi, Museum Sejarah Alam Amerika, dan Profesor Rekanan dalam Antropologi, Lehman College, CUNY dan Briana Pobiner, Ilmuwan Riset dan Pendidik Museum, Institusi Smithsonian

Artikel ini diterbitkan ulang dari Percakapan di bawah lisensi Creative Commons. Baca artikel aslinya.


Perang serangga

Makam amber melestarikan tubuh semut dan rayap purba, menawarkan pandangan sekilas tentang perilaku dan struktur sosial serangga yang hidup jutaan tahun yang lalu.

Semut, beberapa di antaranya terkunci bersama selamanya dalam pertempuran fana, berusia 99 juta tahun, dan rayap dalam damar berusia 100 juta tahun &mdash spesimen rayap tertua yang ditemukan hingga saat ini. Adaptasi tubuh yang berbeda pada rayap dijelaskan dalam sebuah penelitian yang diterbitkan pada Februari 2016 di jurnal Current Biology, dan mengidentifikasi mereka sebagai tentara atau pekerja, mengisyaratkan bahwa bahkan jutaan tahun yang lalu &mdash selama tahap awal evolusi rayap &mdash struktur sosial rayap termasuk peran yang sangat terspesialisasi.

Hewan yang terkubur dalam damar benar-benar tampak membeku dalam waktu, mempertahankan bentuk dan warna tubuh mereka saat mereka muncul dalam kehidupan. Karena getah pohon yang lengket menjebak mereka begitu cepat, hewan dapat ditangkap di tengah interaksi yang dapat ditafsirkan oleh para ilmuwan jutaan tahun kemudian, untuk memahami bagaimana mereka hidup.


Isi

Ketika manusia modern awal (Homo sapiens) bermigrasi ke benua Eropa, mereka berinteraksi dengan penduduk asli Neanderthal (H. neanderthalensis) yang telah menghuni Eropa selama ratusan ribu tahun. Pada tahun 2019, paleoantropolog Yunani Katerina Harvati dan rekan berpendapat bahwa dua tengkorak berusia 210.000 tahun dari Gua Apidima, Yunani, mewakili manusia modern daripada Neanderthal — menunjukkan populasi ini memiliki sejarah yang dalam secara tak terduga [1] tetapi ini dibantah pada tahun 2020 oleh ahli paleoantropologi Prancis Marie-Antoinette de Lumley [fr] dan rekan. [2] Sekitar 60.000 tahun yang lalu, isotop laut tahap 3 dimulai, ditandai dengan pola iklim yang mudah berubah dan peristiwa mundurnya tiba-tiba dan rekolonisasi lahan hutan melalui padang rumput terbuka. [3]

Indikasi paling awal migrasi manusia modern Paleolitik Muda ke Eropa adalah industri Bohunisia Balkan yang dimulai 48.000 tahun yang lalu, kemungkinan berasal dari industri Emiran Levantine, [4] dan tulang-tulang paling awal di Eropa berasal dari sekitar 45–43 ribu tahun yang lalu di Bulgaria, [5] Italia, [6] dan Inggris. [7] Tidak jelas, saat bermigrasi ke barat, apakah mereka mengikuti Danube atau menyusuri pantai Mediterania. [8] Sekitar 45 sampai 44 ribu tahun yang lalu, budaya Proto-Aurignacian menyebar ke seluruh Eropa, mungkin turun dari budaya Ahmarian Timur Dekat. Setelah 40.000 tahun yang lalu dengan permulaan peristiwa Heinrich 4 (periode musiman yang ekstrim), Aurignacian yang tepat mungkin berkembang di Eropa Selatan-Tengah, dan dengan cepat menggantikan budaya lain di seluruh benua. [9] Gelombang manusia modern ini menggantikan Neanderthal dan budaya Mousterian mereka. [10] Di Lembah Danube, Aurignacian memiliki situs yang jauh dan sedikit di antaranya, dibandingkan dengan tradisi selanjutnya, hingga 35.000 tahun yang lalu. Dari sini, "Typical Aurignacian" menjadi cukup lazim, dan meluas hingga 29.000 tahun yang lalu. [11]

Aurignacian secara bertahap digantikan oleh budaya Gravettian, tetapi tidak jelas kapan Aurignacian punah karena tidak didefinisikan dengan baik. Alat "Aurignacoid" atau "Epi-Aurignacian" diidentifikasi hingga 18 hingga 15 ribu tahun yang lalu. [11] Juga tidak jelas dari mana Gravettian berasal karena sangat menyimpang dari Aurignician (dan karena itu mungkin tidak diturunkan darinya). [12] Meskipun demikian, bukti genetik menunjukkan tidak semua garis keturunan Aurignacian punah. [13] Hipotesis untuk asal-usul Gravettian meliputi evolusi: di Eropa Tengah dari Szeletian (yang berkembang dari Bohunician) yang ada 41 hingga 37 ribu tahun yang lalu atau dari Ahmarian atau budaya serupa dari Timur Dekat atau Kaukasus yang ada sebelum 40.000 tahun yang lalu. [12] Hal ini diperdebatkan lebih lanjut di mana kejadian paling awal diidentifikasi, dengan hipotesis sebelumnya berdebat untuk Jerman sekitar 37.500 tahun yang lalu, [14] dan yang terakhir Buran-Kaya [ru] III rockhelter di Krimea sekitar 38 hingga 36 ribu tahun yang lalu. [15] Dalam kedua kasus, kemunculan Gravettian bertepatan dengan penurunan suhu yang signifikan. [3] Juga sekitar 37.000 tahun yang lalu, populasi pendiri semua manusia modern Eropa awal (EEMH) kemudian ada, dan Eropa akan tetap berada dalam isolasi genetik dari seluruh dunia selama 23.000 tahun ke depan. [13]

Sekitar 29.000 tahun yang lalu, tahap 2 isotop laut dimulai dan pendinginan meningkat. Ini memuncak sekitar 21.000 tahun yang lalu selama Maksimum Glasial Terakhir (LGM) ketika Skandinavia, wilayah Baltik, dan Kepulauan Inggris tertutup gletser, dan es laut musim dingin mencapai pesisir Prancis. Pegunungan Alpen juga tertutup gletser, dan sebagian besar Eropa adalah gurun kutub, dengan padang rumput raksasa dan padang rumput hutan mendominasi pantai Mediterania. [3] Akibatnya, sebagian besar Eropa tidak dapat dihuni, dan dua budaya berbeda muncul dengan teknologi unik untuk beradaptasi dengan lingkungan baru: Solutrean di Eropa Barat Daya yang menemukan teknologi baru, dan Epi-Gravettian dari Italia ke Dataran Eropa Timur yang mengadaptasi teknologi Gravettian sebelumnya. Orang-orang Solutrean mendiami zona permafrost, sedangkan orang-orang Epi-Gravettian tampaknya tidak terlalu keras, daerah beku musiman. Relatif sedikit situs yang diketahui selama ini. [16] Gletser mulai mundur sekitar 20.000 tahun yang lalu, dan Solutrean berkembang menjadi Magdalena, yang akan menjajah kembali Eropa Barat dan Tengah selama beberapa ribu tahun ke depan. [3] Dimulai selama Dryas Tua kira-kira 14.000 tahun yang lalu, tradisi Magdalena Akhir muncul, yaitu Azilian, Hamburg, dan Creswellian. [17] Selama pemanasan Bølling–Allerød, gen Timur Dekat mulai muncul di penduduk asli Eropa, yang menunjukkan berakhirnya isolasi genetik Eropa. [13] Mungkin karena pengurangan terus-menerus dari permainan besar Eropa, Magdalena dan Epi-Gravettian sepenuhnya digantikan oleh Mesolitik pada awal Holosen. [17] [18]

Eropa benar-benar dihuni kembali selama iklim optimal Holosen dari 9 hingga 5 ribu tahun yang lalu. Pemburu-Pengumpul Eropa Barat Mesolitik (WHG) berkontribusi signifikan pada genom Eropa saat ini, bersama dengan Eurasia Utara Kuno (ANE) yang diturunkan dari budaya Mal'ta–Buret Siberia [19] (dan berpisah dari EEMH sebelum 37.000 tahun yang lalu [13] ). Tidak seperti ANE, genom WHG tidak lazim di kedua sisi Kaukasus, dan hanya terlihat dalam ukuran signifikan di sebelah barat Kaukasus. Sebagian besar orang Eropa masa kini memiliki rasio WHG/(WHG+ANE) 60–80%, dan pria Loschbour Mesolitikum berusia 8.000 tahun tampaknya memiliki pola yang serupa. Petani Neolitik Timur Dekat yang memisahkan diri dari pemburu-pengumpul Eropa sekitar 40.000 tahun yang lalu mulai menyebar ke seluruh Eropa pada 8.000 tahun yang lalu, mengantarkan Neolitik dengan Petani Eropa Awal (EEF). EEF menyumbang sekitar 30% dari nenek moyang populasi Baltik saat ini, dan hingga 90% pada populasi Mediterania saat ini. Yang terakhir mungkin mewarisi nenek moyang WHG melalui introgresi EEF. [19] [20] Populasi Pemburu-Pengumpul Timur (EHG) yang diidentifikasi di sekitar stepa Ural juga tersebar, dan Pemburu-Pengumpul Skandinavia tampaknya merupakan campuran WHG dan EHG. Sekitar 4.500 tahun yang lalu, imigrasi budaya Yamnaya dan Corded Ware dari stepa timur membawa Zaman Perunggu, bahasa Proto-Indo-Eropa, dan kurang lebih susunan genetik orang Eropa saat ini. [21]

EEMH secara historis telah disebut sebagai "Cro-Magnon" dalam literatur ilmiah sampai sekitar tahun 1990-an ketika istilah "manusia modern secara anatomis" menjadi lebih populer. [22] Nama "Cro-Magnon" berasal dari 5 kerangka yang ditemukan oleh ahli paleontologi Prancis Louis Lartet pada tahun 1868 di tempat penampungan batu Cro-Magnon, Les Eyzies, Dordogne, Prancis, setelah daerah itu secara tidak sengaja ditemukan saat membuka lahan untuk jalur kereta api stasiun. [23] Fosil dan artefak dari Palaeolitik sebenarnya telah dikenal selama beberapa dekade, tetapi ini ditafsirkan dalam model kreasionis (karena konsep evolusi belum dipahami). Misalnya, Aurignacian Red Lady of Paviland (seorang pemuda) dari South Wales digambarkan oleh ahli geologi Pendeta William Buckland pada tahun 1822 sebagai warga negara Romawi Britania. Penulis selanjutnya berpendapat kerangka itu adalah bukti orang-orang kuno (sebelum Banjir Besar) di Inggris, atau tersapu jauh dari tanah berpenghuni lebih jauh ke selatan oleh air banjir yang kuat. Buckland menganggap spesimen itu seorang wanita karena dia dihiasi dengan perhiasan (kerang, batang dan cincin gading, dan tusuk sate dari tulang serigala), dan Buckland juga menyatakan (mungkin bercanda) perhiasan itu adalah bukti sihir. Sekitar waktu ini, gerakan uniformitarianisme memperoleh daya tarik, terutama dipimpin oleh Charles Lyell, dengan alasan bahwa bahan fosil jauh lebih tua dari kronologi alkitabiah. [24]

Setelah Charles Darwin tahun 1859 Tentang Asal Usul Spesies, antropolog rasial dan rasiolog mulai memisahkan subspesies dan subras manusia masa kini berdasarkan metrik yang tidak dapat diandalkan dan pseudoscientific yang dikumpulkan dari antropometri, fisiognomi, dan frenologi yang berlanjut hingga abad ke-20. [25] : 93–96 Ini adalah kelanjutan dari Carl Linnaeus tahun 1735 Systema Naturae, di mana ia menemukan sistem klasifikasi modern, dengan demikian mengklasifikasikan manusia sebagai Homo sapiens dengan beberapa klasifikasi subspesies yang diduga untuk ras yang berbeda berdasarkan definisi perilaku rasis (sesuai dengan konsep ras historis): "H. s. eropa" (Keturunan Eropa, diatur oleh hukum) "H. s. setelah" (Keturunan Afrika, impuls) "H. s. asiatikus" (Keturunan Asia, opini), dan "H. s. americanus" (Keturunan asli Amerika, kebiasaan). [26] Sistem klasifikasi rasial dengan cepat diperluas ke spesimen fosil, termasuk EEMH dan Neanderthal, setelah tingkat kepurbakalaan mereka diketahui. [25] : 110 Pada tahun 1869, Lartet telah mengusulkan klasifikasi subspesies "H. s. fosilis" untuk sisa-sisa Cro-Magnon. [22] Subras lain yang diduga dari 'ras Cro-Magnon' termasuk (di antara banyak lainnya): "H. pra-aethiopicus" untuk tengkorak dari Dordogne yang memiliki "afinitas Ethiopia" "H. predmosti" atau "H. predomostensis" untuk serangkaian tengkorak dari Brno, Republik Ceko, konon transisi antara Neanderthal dan EEMH [27] : 110–111 H. mentonensis untuk tengkorak dari Menton, Prancis [27] : 88"H. grimaldens" untuk manusia Grimaldi dan kerangka lain di dekat Grimaldi, Monako [27] : 55 dan "H. aurignacensis" atau "H. a. hauseri" untuk tengkorak Combe-Capelle. [27] : 15

'Ras-ras fosil' ini, di samping gagasan Ernst Haeckel tentang adanya ras-ras terbelakang yang memerlukan evolusi lebih lanjut (darwinisme sosial), mempopulerkan pandangan dalam pemikiran Eropa bahwa manusia kulit putih yang beradab telah diturunkan dari nenek moyang kera primitif beralis rendah melalui serangkaian ras buas. . Bubungan alis yang menonjol diklasifikasikan sebagai sifat mirip kera, dan akibatnya Neanderthal (serta Aborigin Australia) dianggap sebagai ras rendahan. [25] : 116 Fosil Eropa ini dianggap sebagai nenek moyang ras Eropa yang masih hidup. [25] : 96 Di antara upaya paling awal untuk mengklasifikasikan EEMH dilakukan oleh antropolog rasial Joseph Deniker dan William Z. Ripley pada tahun 1900, yang mencirikan mereka sebagai proto-Arya yang tinggi dan cerdas, lebih unggul dari ras lain, yang diturunkan dari Skandinavia dan Jerman. Teori ras lebih lanjut berputar di sekitar ras (subspesies) yang lebih terang, lebih pirang, dan superior yang berkembang di Eropa Tengah dan menyebar dalam gelombang untuk menggantikan nenek moyang mereka yang lebih gelap, yang berpuncak pada "ras Nordik". Ini selaras dengan Nordikisme dan Pan-Jermanisme (yaitu, supremasi Arya), yang mendapatkan popularitas tepat sebelum Perang Dunia I, dan terutama digunakan oleh Nazi untuk membenarkan penaklukan Eropa dan supremasi rakyat Jerman dalam Perang Dunia II . [25] : 203–205 Perawakan adalah salah satu karakteristik yang digunakan untuk membedakan sub-ras ini, sehingga EEMH yang lebih tinggi seperti spesimen dari situs Cro-Magnon, Paviland, dan Grimaldi Prancis diklasifikasikan sebagai nenek moyang "ras Nordik", dan yang lebih kecil seperti Combe-Capelle dan manusia Chancelade (juga dari Prancis) dianggap sebagai pelopor baik "ras Mediterania" atau "Eskimoid". [28] Patung-patung Venus — patung wanita hamil dengan payudara dan paha yang dibesar-besarkan — digunakan sebagai bukti keberadaan "ras Negroid" di Eropa Paleolitik, karena mereka ditafsirkan berdasarkan pada wanita sejati dengan steatopygia (suatu kondisi yang menyebabkan paha lebih tebal, umum pada wanita orang San di Afrika Selatan) dan tatanan rambut beberapa orang diduga mirip dengan yang terlihat di Mesir Kuno. [29] By the 1940s, the positivism movement — which fought to remove political and cultural bias from science and had begun about a century earlier — had gained popular support in European anthropology. Due to this movement and raciology's associations with Nazism, raciology fell out of practice. [25] : 137

The beginning of the Upper Palaeolithic is thought to have been characterised by a major population increase in Europe, with the human population of Western Europe possibly increasing by a factor of 10 in the Neanderthal/modern human transition. [30] The archaeological record indicates that the overwhelming majority of Palaeolithic people (both Neanderthals and modern humans) died before reaching the age of 40, with few elderly individuals recorded. It is possible the population boom was caused by a significant increase in fertility rates. [31]

A 2005 study estimated the population of Upper Palaeolithic Europe by calculating the total geographic area which was inhabited based on the archaeological record averaged the population density of Chipewyan, Hän, Hill people, and Naskapi Native Americans which live in cold climates and applied to this to EEMH and assumed that population density continually increased with time calculated by the change in the number of total sites per time period. The study calculated that: from 40 to 30 thousand years ago the population was roughly 1,700–28,400 (average 4,400) from 30 to 22 thousand years ago roughly 1,900–30,600 (average 4,800) from 22 to 16.5 thousand years ago roughly 2,300–37,700 (average 5,900) and 16.5–11.5 thousand years ago roughly 11,300–72,600 (average 28,700). [32]

Following the LGM, EEMH are thought to have been much less mobile and featured a higher population density, indicated by seemingly shorter trade routes as well as symptoms of nutritional stress. [33]

Physical attributes Edit

For 28 modern human specimens from 190 to 25 thousand years ago, average brain volume was estimated to have been about 1,478 cc (90.2 cu in), and for 13 EEMH about 1,514 cc (92.4 cu in). In comparison, present-day humans average 1,350 cc (82 cu in), which is notably smaller. This is because the EEMH brain, though within the variation for present-day humans, exhibits longer average frontal lobe length and taller occipital lobe height. The parietal lobes, however, are shorter in EEMH. It is unclear if this could equate to any functional differences between present-day and early modern humans. [34]

EEMH are physically similar to present-day humans, with a globular braincase, completely flat face, gracile brow ridge, and defined chin. However, the bones of EEMH are somewhat thicker and more robust. [35] Compared to present-day Europeans, EEMH have broader and shorter faces, more prominent brow ridges, bigger teeth, shorter upper jaws, more horizontally oriented cheekbones, and more rectangular eye sockets. The latter three are more frequent in certain present-day East Asian populations. [36] Aurignacians featured a higher proportion of traits somewhat reminiscent of Neanderthals, such as (though not limited to) a slightly flattened skullcap and consequent occipital bun protruding from the back of the skull (the latter could be quite defined). Their frequency significantly diminished in Gravettians, and in 2007, palaeoanthropologist Erik Trinkaus concluded these were remnants of Neanderthal introgression which were eventually bred out of the gene pool in his review of the relevant morphology. [37]

In early Upper Palaeolithic Western Europe, 20 men and 10 women were estimated to have averaged 176.2 cm (5 ft 9 in) and 162.9 cm (5 ft 4 in), respectively. This is similar to post-industrial modern Northern Europeans. In contrast, in a sample of 21 and 15 late Upper Palaeolithic Western European men and women, the averages were 165.6 cm (5 ft 5 in) and 153.5 cm (5 ft), similar to pre-industrial modern humans. It is unclear why earlier EEMH were taller, especially considering that cold-climate creatures are short-limbed and thus short-statured to better retain body heat. This has variously been explained as: retention of a hypothetically tall ancestral condition higher-quality diet and nutrition due to the hunting of megafauna which later became uncommon or extinct functional adaptation to increase stride length and movement efficiency while running during a hunt increasing territorialism among later EEMH reducing gene flow between communities and increasing inbreeding rate or statistical bias due to small sample size or because taller people were more likely to achieve higher status in a group before the LGM and thus were more likely to be buried and preserved. [28]

Prior to genetic analysis, it was generally assumed that EEMH, like present-day Europeans, were light skinned as an adaptation to absorb vitamin D from the less luminous sun farther north. However, of the 3 predominant genes responsible for lighter skin in present-day Europeans — KITLG, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 — the latter two, as well as the TYRP1 gene associated with lighter hair and eye colour, experienced positive selection as late as 19 to 11 thousand years ago during the Mesolithic transition. These three became more widespread across the continent in the Bronze Age. [39] [40] The variation of the gene which is associated with blue eyes in present-day humans, OCA2, seems to have descended from a common ancestor about 10–6 thousand years ago somewhere in Northern Europe. [41] Such a late timing was potentially caused by overall low population and/or low cross-continental movement required for such an adaptive shift in skin, hair, and eye colouration. However, KITLG experienced positive selection in EEMH (as well as East Asians) beginning approximately 30,000 years ago. [40] [42]

Genetika Sunting

While anatomically modern humans have been present outside of Africa during some isolated time intervals potentially as early as 250,000 years ago, [43] present-day non-Africans descend from the out of Africa expansion which occurred around 65–55 thousand years ago. This movement was an offshoot of the rapid expansion within East Africa associated with mtDNA haplogroup L3. [44] [45] Mitochondrial DNA analysis places EEMH as the sister group to Upper Palaeolithic East Asian groups ("Proto-Mongoloid"), divergence occurring roughly 50,000 years ago. [46]

Initial genomic studies on the earliest EEMH in 2014, namely on the 37,000-year-old Kostenki-14 individual, identified 3 major lineages which are also present in present-day Europeans: one related to all later EEMH a "Basal Eurasian" lineage which split from the common ancestor of present-day Europeans and East Asians before they split from each other and another related to a 24,000-year-old individual from the Siberian Mal'ta–Buret' culture (near Lake Baikal). Contrary to this, a 2016 study looking at much earlier European specimens, including Ust'-Ishim and Oase-1 dating to 45,000 years ago, found no evidence of a "Basal Eurasian" component to the genome, nor did they find evidence of Mal'ta–Buret' introgression when looking at a wider range of EEMH from the entire Upper Palaeolithic. The study instead concluded that such a genetic makeup in present-day Europeans stemmed from Near Eastern and Siberian introgression occurring predominantly in the Neolithic and the Bronze Age (though beginning by 14,000 years ago), but all EEMH specimens including and following Kostenki-14 contributed to the present-day European genome and were more closely related to present-day Europeans than East Asians. Earlier EEMH (10 tested in total), on the other hand, did not seem to be ancestral to any present-day population, nor did they form any cohesive group in and of themselves, each representing either completely distinct genetic lineages, admixture between major lineages, or have highly divergent ancestry. Because of these, the study also concluded that, beginning roughly 37,000 years ago, EEMH descended from a single founder population and were reproductively isolated from the rest of the world. The study reported that an Aurignacian individual from Grottes de Goyet, Belgium, has more genetic affinities to the Magdalenian inhabitants of Cueva de El Miròn than to more or less contemporaneous Eastern European Gravettians. [13]

Haplogroups identified in EEMH are the patrilineal (from father to son) Y-DNA haplogroups IJ, C1, and K2a [note 1] [48] and matrilineal (from mother to child) mt-DNA haplogroup N, R, and U. [note 2] Y-haplogroup IJ descended from Southwest Asia. Haplogroup I emerged about 35 to 30 thousand years ago, either in Europe or West Asia. Mt-haplogroup U5 arose in Europe just prior to the LGM, between 35 and 25 thousand years ago. [47] The 14,000 year old Villabruna 1 skeleton from Ripari Villabruna, Italy, is the oldest identified bearer of Y-haplogroup R1b (R1b1a-L754* (xL389,V88)) found in Europe, likely brought in from Near Eastern introgression. [13] The Azilian "Bichon man" skeleton from the Swiss Jura was found to be associated with the WHG lineage. He was a bearer of Y-DNA haplogroup I2a and mtDNA haplogroup U5b1h. [42]

Genetic evidence suggests early modern humans interbred with Neanderthals. Genes in the present-day genome are estimated to have entered about 65 to 47 thousand years ago, most likely in West Asia soon after modern humans left Africa. [50] [51] In 2015, the 40,000 year old modern human Oase 2 was found to have had 6–9% (point estimate 7.3%) Neanderthal DNA, indicating a Neanderthal ancestor up to four to six generations earlier, but this hybrid Romanian population does not appear to have made a substantial contribution to the genomes of later Europeans. Therefore, it is possible that interbreeding was common between Neanderthals and EEMH which did not contribute to the present-day genome. [38] The percentage of Neanderthal genes gradually decreased with time, which could indicate they were maladaptive and were selected out of the gene pool. [13]

There is a notable technological complexification coinciding with the replacement of Neanderthals with EEMH in the archaeological record, and so the terms "Middle Palaeolithic" and "Upper Palaeolithic" were created to distinguish between these two time periods. Largely based on Western European archaeology, the transition was dubbed the "Upper Palaeolithic Revolution," (extended to be a worldwide phenomenon) and the idea of "behavioural modernity" became associated with this event and early modern cultures. It is largely agreed that the Upper Palaeolithic seems to feature a higher rate of technological and cultural evolution than the Middle Palaeolithic, but it is debated if behavioural modernity was truly an abrupt development or was a slow progression initiating far earlier than the Upper Paleolithic, especially when considering the non-European archaeological record. Behaviourly modern practices include: the production of microliths, the common use of bone and antler, the common use of grinding and pounding tools, high quality evidence of body decoration and figurine production, long-distance trade networks, and improved hunting technology. [52] [53] In regard to art, the Magdalenian produced some of the most intricate Palaeolithic pieces, and they even elaborately decorated normal, everyday objects. [54]

Hunting and gathering Edit

Historically, ethnographic studies on hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies have long placed emphasis on sexual division of labour and most especially the hunting of big game by men. This culminated in the 1966 book Man the Hunter, which focuses almost entirely on the importance of male contributions of food to the group. As this was published during the second-wave feminism movement, this was quickly met with backlash from many female anthropologists. Among these was Australian archaeologist Betty Meehan in her 1974 article Woman the Gatherer, who argued that women play a vital role in these communities by gathering more reliable food plants and small game, as big game hunting has a low success rate. The concept of "Woman the Gatherer" has since gained significant support. [55]

It has typically been assumed that EEMH closely studied prey habits in order to maximise return depending on the season. For example, large mammals (including red deer, horses, and ibex) congregate seasonally, and reindeer were possibly seasonally plagued by insects rendering fur sometimes unsuitable for hideworking. [56] There is much evidence that EEMH, especially in Western Europe following the LGM, corralled large prey animals into natural confined spaces (such as against a cliff wall, a cul-de-sac, or a water body) in order to efficiently slaughter whole herds of animals (game drive system). They seem to have scheduled mass kills to coincide with migration patterns, in particular for red deer, horses, reindeer, bison, aurochs, and ibex, and occasionally wooly mammoths. [57] There are also multiple examples of consumption of seasonally abundant fish, becoming more prevalent in the mid-Upper-Palaeolithic. [58] Nonetheless, Magdalenian peoples appear to have had a greater dependence on small animals, aquatic resources, and plants than predecessors, probably due to the relative scarcity of European big game following the LGM (Quaternary extinction event). [3] Post-LGM peoples tend to have a higher rate of nutrient deficiency related ailments, including a reduction in height, which indicates these bands (probably due to decreased habitable territory) had to consume a much broader and less desirable food range to survive. [33] The popularisation of game drive systems may have been an extension of increasing food return. [57] In particularly southwestern France, EEMH depended heavily upon reindeer, and so it is hypothesised that these communities followed the herds, with occupation of the Perigord and the Pyrenees only occurring in the summer. [59] Epi-Gravettian communities, in contrast, generally focused on hunting 1 species of large game, most commonly horse or bison. [18] It is possible that human activity, in addition to the rapid retreat of favourable steppeland, inhibited recolonisation of most of Europe by megafauna following the LGM (such as mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, Irish elk, and cave lions), in part contributing to their final extinction which occurred by the beginning of or well into the Holocene depending on the species. [60]

For weapons, EEMH crafted spearpoints using predominantly bone and antler, possibly because these materials were readily abundant. Compared to stone, these materials are compressive, making them fairly shatterproof. [56] These were then hafted onto a shaft to be used as javelins. It is possible that Aurignacian craftsmen further hafted bone barbs onto the spearheads, but firm evidence of such technology is recorded earliest 23,500 years ago, and does not become more common until the Mesolithic. [61] Aurignacian craftsmen produced lozenge-shaped (diamond-like) spearheads. By 30,000 years ago, spearheads were manufactured with a more rounded-off base, and by 28,000 years ago spindle-shaped heads were introduced. During the Gravettian, spearheads with a bevelled base were being produced. By the beginning of the LGM, the spear-thrower was invented in Europe, which can increase the force and accuracy of the projectile. [56] A possible boomerang made of mammoth tusk was identified in Poland (though it may have been unable to return to the thrower), and dating to 23,000 years ago, it would be the oldest known boomerang. [62] Stone spearheads with leaf- and shouldered-points become more prevalent in the Solutrean. Both large and small spearheads were produced in great quantity, and the smaller ones may have been attached to projectile darts. Archery was possibly invented in the Solutrean, though less ambiguous bow technology is first reported in the Mesolithic. Bone technology was revitalised in the Magdalanian, and long-range technology as well as harpoons become much more prevalent. Some harpoon fragments are speculated to have been leisters or tridents, and true harpoons are commonly found along seasonal salmon migration routes. [57]

Society Edit

Social system Edit

As opposed to the patriarchy prominent in historical societies, the idea of a prehistoric predominance of either matriarchy or matrifocal families (centred on motherhood) was first supposed in 1861 by legal scholar Johann Jakob Bachofen. The earliest models of this believed that monogamy was not widely practiced in ancient times — thus, the paternal line was resultantly more difficult to keep track of than the maternal — resulting in a matrilineal (and matriarchal) society. Matriarchs were then conquered by patriarchs at the dawn of civilisation. The switch from matriarchy to patriarchy and the hypothetical adoption of monogamy was seen as a leap forward. [63] However, when the first Palaeolithic representations of humans were discovered, the so-called Venus figurines — which typically feature pronounced breasts, buttocks, and vulvas (areas generally sexualised in present-day Western Culture) — they were initially interpreted as pornographic in nature. The first Venus discovered was named the "Vénus impudique" ("immodest Venus") by the discoverer Paul Hurault, 8th Marquis de Vibraye, because it lacked clothes and had a prominent vulva. [29] The name "Venus", after the Roman goddess of beauty, in itself implies an erotic function. Such a pattern in the representation of the human form led to suggestions that human forms were generally pornography for men, meaning men were primarily responsible for artwork and craftsmanship in the Palaeolithic whereas women were tasked with child rearing and various domestic works. This would equate to a patriarchal social system. [64]

The Palaeolithic matriarchy model was adapted by prominent communist Friedrich Engels who instead argued that women were robbed of power by men due to economic changes which could only be undone with the adoption of communism (Marxist feminism). The former sentiment was adopted by the first-wave feminism movement, who attacked the patriarchy by making Darwinist arguments of a supposed natural egalitarian or matrifocal state of human society instead of patriarchal, as well as interpreting the Venuses as evidence of mother goddess worship as part of some matriarchal religion. Consequently, by the mid-20th century, the Venuses were primarily interpreted as evidence of some Palaeolithic fertility cult. Such claims died down in the 1970s as archaeologists moved away from the highly theoretical models produced by the previous generation. Through the second-wave feminism movement, the prehistoric matriarchal religion hypothesis was primarily propelled by Lithuanian-American archaeologist Marija Gimbutas. Her interpretations of the Palaeolithic were notably involved in the Goddess movement. [63] Equally ardent arguments against the matriarchy hypothesis have also been prominent, such as American religious scholar Cynthia Eller's 2000 The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory. [64]

Looking at the archaeological record, depictions of women are markedly more common than of men. In contrast to the commonplace Venuses in the Gravettian, Gravettian depictions of men are rare and contested, the only reliable one being a fragmented ivory figurine from the grave of a Pavlovian site in Brno, Czech Republic (it is also the only statuette found in a Palaeolithic grave). 2-D Magdalenian engravings from 15 to 11 thousand years ago do depict males, indicated by an erect penis and facial hair, though profiles of women with an exaggerated buttock are much more common. [65] There are less than 100 depictions of males in the EEMH archaeological record (of them, about a third are depicted with erections.) [66] On the other hand, most individuals which received a burial (which may have been related to social status) were men. [67] Anatomically, the robustness of limbs (which is an indicator of strength) between EEMH men and women were consistently not appreciably different from each other. Such low levels of sexual dimorphism through the Upper Pleistocene could potentially mean that sexual division of labour, which characterises historic societies (both agricultural and hunter-gatherer), only became commonplace in the Holocene. [33]

Trading Edit

The Upper Palaeolithic is characterised by evidence of expansive trade routes and the great distances at which communities could maintain interactions. The early Upper Palaeolithic is especially known for highly mobile lifestyles, with Gravettian groups (at least those analysed in Italy and Moravia, Ukraine) often sourcing some raw materials upwards of 200 km (120 mi). However, it is debated if this represents sample bias, and if Western and Northern Europe were less mobile. Some cultural practices such as creating Venus figurines or specific burial rituals during the Gravettian stretched 2,000 km (1,200 mi) across the continent. [33] Genetic evidence suggests that, despite strong evidence of cultural transmission, Gravettian Europeans did not introgress into Siberians, meaning there was a movement of ideas but not people between Europe and Siberia. [13] At the 30,000 year old Romanian Poiana Cireşului site, perforated shells of the Homalopoma sanguineum sea snail were recovered, which is significant as it inhabits the Mediterranean at nearest 900 km (560 mi) away. [68] Such interlinkage may have been an important survival tool in lieu of the steadily deteriorating climate. Given low estimated population density, this may have required a rather complex, cross-continental social organisation system. [33]

By and following the LGM, population densities are thought to have been much higher with the marked decrease of habitable lands, resulting in more regional economies. Decreased land availability could have increased travel distance, as habitable refugia may have been far and few between, and increasing population density within these few refugia would have made long-distance travel less economic. This trend continued into the Mesolithic with the adoption of sedentism. [33] Nonetheless, there is some evidence of long-distance Magdalenian trade routes. For example, at Lascaux, a painting of a bull had remnants of the manganese mineral hausmannite, which can only be manufactured in heat in excess of 900 °C (1,650 °F), which was probably impossible for EEMH this means they likely encountered natural hausmannite which is known to be found 250 km (160 mi) away in the Pyrenees. Unless there was a hausmannite source much closer to Lascaux which has since been depleted, this could mean that there was a local economy based on manganese ores. Also, at Ekain, Basque Country, the inhabitants were using the locally rare manganese mineral groutite in their paintings, which they possibly mined out of the cave itself. [69] Based on the distribution of Mediterranean and Atlantic seashell jewellery even well inland, there may have been a network during the Late Glacial Interstadial (14 to 12 thousand years ago) along the rivers Rhine and Rhône in France, Germany, and Switzerland. [68]

Housing Edit

EEMH cave sites quite often feature distinct spatial organisation, with certain areas specifically designated for specific activities, such as hearth areas, kitchens, butchering grounds, sleeping grounds, and trash pile. It is difficult to tell if all material from a site was deposited at about the same time, or if the site was used multiple times. [52] EEMH are thought to have been quite mobile, indicated by the great lengths of trade routes, and such a lifestyle was likely supported by the constructions of temporary shelters in open environments, such as huts. Evidence of huts is typically associated with a hearth. [71]

Magdalenian peoples, especially, are thought to have been highly migratory, following herds while repopulating Europe, and several cave and open-air sites indicate the area was abandoned and revisited regularly. The 19,000 year old Peyre Blanque site, France, and at least the 260 km 2 (100 sq mi) area around it may have been revisited for thousands of years. [71] In the Magdalenian, stone lined rectangular areas typically 6–15 m 2 (65–161 sq ft) were interpreted as having been the foundations or flooring of huts. At Magdalenian Pincevent, France, small, circular dwellings were speculated to have existed based on the spacing of stone tools and bones these sometimes featured an indoor hearth, work area, or sleeping space (but not all at the same time). A 23,000 year old hut from the Israeli Ohalo II was identified as having used grasses as flooring or possibly bedding, but it is unclear if EEMH also lined their huts with grass or instead used animal pelts. [72] A 13,800 year old slab from Molí del Salt, Spain, has 7 dome-shaped figures engraved onto it, which are postulated to represent temporary dome-shaped huts. [70]

Over 70 dwellings constructed by EEMH out of mammoth bones have been identified, primarily from the Russian Plain, [73] possibly semi-permanent hunting camps. [74] They seem to have built tipis and yarangas. [75] These were typically constructed following the LGM after 22,000 years ago by Epi-Gravettian peoples [76] the earliest hut identified comes from the Molodova I site, Ukraine, which was dated to 44,000 years ago (making it possible it was built by Neanderthals). [77] Typically, these huts measured 5 m (16 ft) in diameter, or 4 m × 6 m (13 ft × 20 ft) if oval shaped. Huts could get as small as 3 m × 2 m (9.8 ft × 6.6 ft). [75] One of the largest huts has a diameter of 12.5 m (41 ft) — a 25,000 year old hut identified in Kostenki, Russia — and was constructed out of 64 mammoth skulls, but given the little evidence of occupation, this is postulated to have been used for food storage rather than as a living space. [76] Some huts have burned bones, which has typically been interpreted as bones used as fuel for fireplaces due to the scarcity of firewood, and/or disposal of waste. A few huts, however, have evidence of wood burning, or mixed wood/bone burning. [76]

Mammoth hut foundations were generally made by pushing a great quantity of mammoth skulls into the ground (most commonly, though not always, with the tusks facing up to possibly be used as further supports), and the walls by putting into the ground vertically shoulder blades, pelvises, long bones, jaws, and the spine. Long bones were often used as poles, commonly placed on the end of another long bone or in the cavity of where tusk used to be. [75] Foundation may have extended as far as 40 cm (16 in) underground. Generally, multiple huts were built in a locality, placed 1–20 m (3 ft 3 in–65 ft 7 in) apart depending on location. Tusks may have been used to make entrances, skins pulled over for roofing, [73] and the interior sealed up by loess dug out of pits. Some architectural decisions seem to have been purely for aesthetics, best seen in the 4 Epi-Gravettian huts from Mezhyrich, Mezine, Ukraine, where jaws were stacked to create a chevron or zigzag pattern in 2 huts, and long bones were stacked to create horizontal or vertical lines in respectively 1 and 2 huts. The chevron was a commonly used symbol on the Russian Plain, painted or engraved on bones, tools, figurines, and mammoth skulls. [75]

Dogs Edit

At some point in time, EEMH domesticated the dog, probably as a result of a symbiotic hunting relationship. DNA evidence suggests that present-day dogs split from wolves around the beginning of the LGM. However, potential Palaeolithic dogs have been found preceding this — namely the 36,000 year old Goyet dog from Belgium and the 33,000 year old Altai dog from Siberia — which could indicate there were multiple attempts at domesticating European wolves. [78] These "dogs" had a wide size range, from over 60 cm (2 ft) in height in Eastern Europe to less than 30–45 cm (1 ft–1 ft 6 in) in Central and Western Europe, [79] and 32–41 kg (71–90 lb) in all of Europe. These "dogs" are identified by having a shorter snout and skull, and wider palate and braincase than contemporary wolves. Nonetheless, an Aurignacian origin for domestication is controversial. [80]

At the 27 to 24 thousand year old Předmostí site, Czech Republic, 3 "dogs" were identified with their skulls perforated (probably to extract the brain), and 1 had a mammoth bone in its mouth. The discoverers interpreted this as a burial ritual. [80] The 14,500 year old Bonn-Oberkassel dog from Germany was found buried alongside a 40-year-old man and a 25-year-old woman, as well as traces of red hematite, and is genetically placed as an ancestor to present-day dogs. It was diagnosed with canine distemper virus and probably died between 19 and 23 weeks of age. It would have required extensive human care to survive without being able to contribute to anything, suggesting that, at this point, humans and dogs were connected by emotional or symbolic ties rather than purely materialistic personal gain. [81]

It is hypothesised these proto-dogs provided a vital role in hunting, as well as domestic services such as transporting items or guarding camp or carcasses, but their exact utility is unclear. [82]

Sunting Seni

When examples of Upper Palaeolithic art were first discovered in the 19th century — engraved objects — they were assumed to have been "art for art's sake" as Palaeolithic peoples were widely conceived as having been uncultured savages. This model was primarily championed by French archaeologist Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet. Then, detailed paintings found deep within caves were discovered, the first being Cueva de Altamira, Spain, in 1879. The "art for art's sake" model came apart by the turn of the century as more examples of cave art were found in hard-to-reach places in Western Europe such as Combarelles and Font-de-Gaume, for which the idea of it being simply a leisure activity became increasingly untenable. [83]

Cave art Edit

EEMH are well known for having painted or engraved geometric designs, hand stencils, plants, animals, and seemingly human/animal hybrid creatures on cave walls deep inside caves. Typically the same species are represented in caves which have such art, but the total number of species is quite numerous, and namely includes creatures such as mammoths, bison, lions, bears, and ibex. Nonetheless, some caves were dominated by certain forms, such as Grotte de Niaux where over half of the animals are bison. Images could be drawn on top of one another. [83] They are found in dark cave recesses, and the artists either lit a fire on the cave floor or used portable stone lamps to see. Drawing materials include black charcoal and red and yellow ochre crayons, but they, along with a variety of other minerals, could also be ground into powder and mixed with water to create paint. Large, flat rocks may have been used as palettes, and brushes may have included reeds, bristles, and twigs, and possibly a blowgun was used to spray paint over less accessible areas. [84] Hand stencils could either be made by holding the hand to the wall and spitting paint over it (leaving a negative image) or by applying paint to the hand and then sticking it to the wall. Some hand stencils are missing fingers, but it is unclear if the artist was actually missing the finger or simply excluded it from the stencil. It has generally been assumed that the larger prints were left by men and the smaller ones by boys, but the exclusion of women entirely may be improbable. [85] Though many hypotheses have been proposed for the symbolism of cave art, it is still debated why these works were created in the first place. [83]

One of the first hypotheses regarding their symbolism was forwarded by French religious historian Salomon Reinach who supposed that, because only animals were depicted on cave walls, the images represented totem veneration, in which a group or a group member identifies with a certain animal associated with certain powers, and honours or respects this animal in some way such as by not hunting it. If this were the case, then EEMH communities within a region would have subdivided themselves into, for example, a "horse clan", a "bison clan", a "lion clan", and so forth. This was soon contested as some caves contain depictions of animals wounded by projectiles, and generally multiple species are represented. [83]

In 1903, Reinach proposed that the cave art represented sympathetic magic (between the painting and the painting's subject), and by drawing an animal doing some kind of action, the artist believed they were exerting that same action onto the animal. That is, by being the master of the image, they could master the animal itself. The hunting magic model — and the idea that art was magical and utilitarian in EEMH society — gained much popularity in the following decades. In this model, herbivorous prey items were depicted as having been wounded prior to a hunt in order to cast a spell over them some animals were incompletely depicted to enfeeble them geometric designs were traps and human/animal hybrids were sorcerers dressed as animals to gain their power, or were gods ruling over the animals. Many animals were depicted as completely healthy and intact, and sometimes pregnant, which this model interprets as fertility magic to promote reproduction however, if the animal was a carnivore, then this model says that the depiction served to destroy the animal. By the mid-20th century, this model was being contested because of how few depictions of wounded animals exist the collection of consumed animal bones in decorated caves often did not match types of animals depicted in terms of abundance and the magic model does not explain hand stencils. [83]

Following the 1960s, begun by German-American art historian Max Raphael, the study of cave art took on a much more statistical approach, analysing and quantifying items such as the types and distribution of animals depicted, cave topography, and cave wall morphology. Based on such structuralist tests, horses and bovines seem to have been preferentially clustered together typically in a central position, and such binary organisation led to the suggestion that this was sexual symbolism, and some animals and iconography were designated by EEMH as either male or female. This conclusion has been heavily contested as well, due to the subjective definition of association between two different animals, and the great detail the animals were depicted in, permitting sexual identification (and further, the hypothesis that bison were supposed to be feminine contradicts the finding that many are male). [83]

Also in the late 20th century, with the popularisation of the hypothesis that EEMH practised shamanism, the human/animal hybrids and geometrical symbols were interpreted within this framework as the visions a shaman would see while in a trance (entoptic phenomena). Opponents mainly attack the comparisons made between Palaeolithic cultures and present-day shamanistic societies for being in some way inaccurate. [83] In 1988, archaeologists David Lewis-Williams and Thomas Dowson suggested trances were induced by hallucinogenic plants containing either mescaline, LSD, or psilocybine but the only European plant which produces any of these is ergot (which produces a substance used to make LSD), and there is no evidence EEMH purposefully ate it. [86]


Researchers Uncover 1.5-Million-Year-Old Footprints

Freshly discovered trails of ancient footprints, left on what was once the muddy shores of a river near Ileret, Kenya, indicate that some 1.5 million years ago human ancestors walked in a manner similar to that of people today. The international team of researchers who analyzed the prints say that those who left them had feet that looked a lot like ours.

The prints were probably left by Homo ergaster, an earlier, larger version of the widespread Homo erectus, says David Braun, a lecturer in archeology at the University of Cape Town in South Africa and co-author of the study set to be published tomorrow in Sains. This discovery "lets us know that they were probably just as efficient at walking upright as we are," he says.

Previous research has shown that human ancestors were perfectly capable of getting around on their hind legs 3.5 million years ago&mdashand perhaps even earlier. But Braun says these prints reveal, for the first time, a very modern foot with a parallel big toe&mdashunlike an ape's opposable digit that's easily curled for grasping tree branches. Homo sapiens proper are said to have emerged about 200,000 years ago.

Footprints can tell scientists a lot about creatures that a skeleton cannot. From them, scientists can learn about the gait, weight distribution and even the approximate size of those who made them. Braun says these prints were apparently made by pedestrians who stood just under five feet (1.5 meters) tall. A modern upright stride can indicate a lot about behavior, as well, says David Raichlen, an assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, who cites long-distance walking and running as possible benefits of this adaptation.

"It really is a snapshot of time," Braun says. The preserved area also shows a wealth of animal prints, which gives more precise information about what creatures shared the space and time. Exhumed fossils can yield info on general environments footprints can provide a glimpse into life over days rather than millennia. "With the footprints," Braun says, "we can almost certainly say these things lived in the same time as each other, which is unique."

It is much rarer to find footprints than bones, because conditions must be perfect for tracks to be preserved, according to Braun. In this case, the tracks were made during a rainy season near an ancient river just before that river changed course and swept a protective layer of sand over them.

The last major set of footprints, discovered in 1978 in Laetoli, Tanzania, were dated to about 3.6 million years ago. But those revealed a more ancient foot and gait, and it is still debatable whether those who made them had a stride more akin to humans or to chimpanzees, says Raichlen, who has studied the Laetoli prints.

The Ileret tracks were digitally scanned using a laser technique developed by lead study author, Matthew Bennett, a geoarchaeologist at Bournemouth University in Poole, England. Raichlen says the find gives people a rare view of those that have trod before. "It's important to think about what you're really getting: a glimpse of behavior in the fossil record that you wouldn't really get in any other way," he says. The research reveals "a moment in time when individuals are walking around the landscape. It sort of fleshes out and brings them back to life, in a way."


Tonton videonya: Viral Makhluk Aneh yang Sering Memangsa Hewan Ternak Warga! Kalo Bukan Silluman, Jadi ini Apa? (Juni 2022).


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