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Tarentum

Tarentum



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Tarentum (Taras, Taranto modern), yang terletak di pantai selatan Apulia, Italia, adalah kota Yunani dan kemudian Romawi. Mengontrol area Magna Graecia yang luas dan memimpin Liga Italiote, Tarentum, dengan pelabuhannya yang luar biasa, adalah kota yang signifikan secara strategis sepanjang zaman. Dengan demikian, ia akan memainkan peran penting dalam perang antara Pyrrhus dan Roma pada abad ke-3 SM dan lagi selama Perang Punisia Kedua ketika Hannibal menduduki Italia selatan. Sementara sedikit sisa bangunan Tarentum kuno saat ini, museum kota ini menawarkan salah satu koleksi tembikar Yunani terbesar di dunia dan memiliki banyak perunggu halus, perhiasan emas, dan mosaik lantai.

Ikhtisar Sejarah

Dasar

Tarentum, atau Taras seperti yang pertama kali dikenal dalam bahasa Yunani, adalah sebuah koloni yang didirikan oleh Sparta pada abad ke-8 SM sebagai bagian dari gelombang penjajahan Yunani di wilayah tersebut yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Magna Graecia. Menurut tradisi kota ini didirikan pada 706 SM oleh pahlawan Spartan Phalanthus. Koloni pertama juga dikatakan sebagai keturunan wanita Spartan dan helot, pekerja pertanian semi-perbudakan yang melayani tuan Spartan mereka. Bukti arkeologi, bagaimanapun, menunjukkan pemukiman Neolitik jauh lebih awal diikuti oleh kehadiran Mycenaean di daerah tersebut selama Zaman Perunggu.

Barang & koin dari Tarentum telah digali di sepanjang pantai selatan & Adriatik Italia.

Kota yang Berkembang

Terletak di pantai dan dengan pelabuhan terbaik di teluk Tarentum, kota ini akan makmur dan menjadi salah satu pusat komersial terpenting di wilayah tersebut. Pertumbuhan kota memang membawanya ke dalam konflik dengan saingan lokal seperti Metapontum di ujung lain teluk, tetapi Tarentum memenangkan kemenangan penting atas suku-suku lokal (Messapians dan Peucetians) pada 490 dan 480 SM. Pertempuran ini diperingati dalam dedikasi yang dibuat di Delphi, meskipun perdamaian tidak berlangsung lama karena Messapians menimbulkan kekalahan serius di Tarentum c. 475 SM dalam pertempuran yang digambarkan oleh Herodotus sebagai 'pertumpahan darah yang hebat' (7.170.3). Konsekuensi dari kelemahan militer kota adalah penggulingan kelas penguasa, yang digantikan oleh sistem demokrasi terbatas.

Keberuntungan Tarentum meningkat pada akhir abad ke-5 SM dan melihat kota tumbuh menjadi sekitar 530 hektar dan meningkatkan wilayah terpencilnya, perluasan dibantu oleh penurunan saingan lama Croton lebih jauh ke pantai selatan Italia. Barang-barang dan mata uang dari Tarentum (termasuk stater perak dengan sosok laki-laki khas mereka mengendarai lumba-lumba) telah digali di sepanjang pantai selatan dan Adriatik Italia yang menggambarkan kemakmuran kota dan kapasitas perdagangan. Tempat-tempat suci dan kuburan kuil yang besar juga membuktikan pertumbuhan kota selama paruh kedua abad ke-5 SM. Kota ini bahkan mendirikan koloninya sendiri di sebelah barat, Heraclea (Herakleia), pada tahun 433 SM. Sekitar 400 SM Heraclea menjadi pusat Liga Italiote, sebuah asosiasi negara-kota Italia selatan, yang didominasi oleh Tarentum.

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Selama abad ke-4 SM pemerintahan Tarentum didominasi oleh pemikiran Pythagoras (Pythagoras telah mendirikan sekolahnya lebih jauh ke bawah pantai) dan satu orang, khususnya, Archytas (c. 400-350 SM). Matematikawan terkenal, Pythagoras dan negarawan terpilih sebagai jenderal tujuh kali dan mungkin menjalin aliansi dengan Syracuse, negara-kota yang kuat di Sisilia, yang memungkinkan Tarentum untuk berkembang lebih jauh pada saat Dionysius I, tiran Syracuse, sibuk menjarah kota-kota. di Italia selatan. Pada paruh kedua abad ke-4 SM Tarentum berjuang untuk mempertahankan posisi dominasi regionalnya dan menghadapi ancaman yang terus meningkat dari Messapians dan Lucanians dengan menyewa tentara bayaran, sering dipimpin oleh jenderal dari Sparta dan Epirus. Namun, pada abad ke-3 SM, musuh yang jauh lebih berbahaya sedang berkeliaran di Magna Graecia: Roma.

Pyrrhus & Roma

Untungnya bagi Tarentum sekutu yang kuat ada di tangan untuk menyelamatkan mereka dari pendudukan Romawi. Jenderal besar dan raja Epirus, Pyrrhus, menanggapi permintaan bantuan dari kota itu ketika kota itu akan diserang Romawi pada 280 SM. Pyrrhus menyeberangi Laut Adriatik dengan 25.000 pasukan infanterinya dan, dengan mempekerjakan 20 gajah perang dan 3.000 pasukan kavaleri yang unggul, ia memenangkan pertempuran melawan tentara Romawi di Heraclea pada 280 SM dan Ausculum pada 279 SM. Kemenangan, bagaimanapun, datang dengan biaya tinggi dalam kehidupan di kedua sisi dan pertempuran ini tidak menentukan, maka ekspresi abadi 'kemenangan Pyrrhic'. Lebih penting lagi bagi Tarentum, Pyrrhus segera terpaksa meninggalkan wilayah itu dan menghadapi ancaman yang meningkat dari Kartago terhadap kepentingannya di Sisilia. Dengan medan yang sekarang jelas, Roma menduduki kota itu pada 270 SM dan setelah itu Tarentum menjadi sekutu kekuatan dominan semenanjung itu.

Hannibal & Roma

Wilayah ini sekali lagi menjadi medan perang terpenting di Mediterania ketika Hannibal menginvasi Italia dalam Perang Punisia Kedua (218-201 SM). Tarentum, seperti kebanyakan kota Italia selatan, memihak Kartago tetapi akropolis dan pelabuhan Tarentum, bagaimanapun, diduduki oleh Roma. Hannibal mati-matian mencari pelabuhan di mana pasukannya dapat disuplai dari Afrika tetapi dia tidak dapat mengambil Tarentum dan hanya berhasil menduduki kota luar.

Selama kekacauan Perang Punisia, upaya singkat dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kembali kemerdekaan kota pada tahun 213 SM ketika sejumlah bangsawan menggulingkan pemerintah. Itu adalah pemberontakan berumur pendek dan kota sekali lagi sepenuhnya berada di bawah kendali Romawi pada 209 SM ketika ditangkap oleh Quintus Fabius Maximus. Ketika Scipio Africanus berlayar ke Afrika dan menyerang Kartago sendiri pada tahun 203 SM, Hannibal dipanggil kembali dari Italia untuk pertahanan terakhir di tanah air. Tarentum ditinggalkan pada belas kasihan Roma. Dengan tanahnya yang sangat berkurang dan diperintah langsung oleh seorang praetor Romawi, kota ini akhirnya mendapatkan kembali statusnya sebagai sekutu resmi c. 180 SM. Dengan perluasan via Appia ke Brundisium lebih jauh ke tenggara, Tarentum kehilangan posisinya sebagai pelabuhan utama di Italia selatan.

Tarentum berkembang sebagai kota sederhana di Republik Romawi dan pada 122 SM koloni Neptunia didirikan yang akan menjadi bagian dari Tarentum tepat pada 89 SM. Pada tahun 59 SM, sebidang tanah Tarentum diberikan kepada para veteran dan kota itu menjadi semakin diromanisasi. Kota ini masih menghasilkan produk untuk ekspor seperti wol, tekstil, pewarna ungu Tyrian, dan bahan makanan. Bukti epigrafik, kepadatan perumahan pribadi dan keberadaan beberapa vila besar menunjukkan bahwa kota ini tetap aktif secara ekonomi dan relatif makmur hingga periode kekaisaran dengan Kaisar Nero (memerintah 54-68 M) memberikan status koloni.

Zaman Kuno Akhir

Baik orang Yahudi maupun Kristen hadir dengan kuat di Tarentum sejak abad ke-1 M dan seterusnya dengan keuskupan yang didirikan pada abad ke-4 M atau sebelumnya. Selama invasi Gotik kota itu, meskipun benteng barunya, diduduki oleh Totila, raja Ostrogoth (memerintah 541-552 M). Pelabuhan kota yang luar biasa tidak pernah berhenti menarik kehadiran angkatan laut ketika ada kesempatan dan Konstans II, kaisar Bizantium, mengirim armada ke Italia yang mendarat di Tarentum pada tahun 661 M. Pada tahun 668 M Tarentum, masih, seperti biasa, akuisisi yang berguna secara strategis bagi penjajah, memasuki periode abad pertengahan dengan ledakan ketika adipati Lombardia Romauld menjarah kota itu.

Peninggalan Arkeologi

Tarentum pernah memiliki kompleks keramat besar dengan kuil-kuil yang mengesankan tetapi karena fakta bahwa kota ini telah terus-menerus diduduki sejak zaman kuno, sebagian besar arsitektur kuno berskala besar telah lama dibongkar dan digunakan kembali di tempat lain di bangunan yang lebih modern. Pengecualian adalah dua kolom besar yang dulunya milik kuil kuno yang didedikasikan untuk Poseidon. Tiang-tiang ini sekarang berdiri di sudut alun-alun kota (bukan lokasi aslinya) dan ukurannya yang besar menunjukkan betapa besarnya kuil yang sekarang hilang ini.

Apa yang mungkin tidak dimiliki Tarentum dalam arsitektur lebih dari kompensasi dalam kekayaan artefak yang digali di situs, pedesaan di sekitarnya, dan pelabuhan itu sendiri. Banyak contoh tembikar figur hitam dan tembikar figur merah yang terbaik dan terpelihara dengan baik telah ditemukan di situs dengan museum MARTA Taranto yang megah memiliki koleksi yang menyaingi Athena dan Vatikan dalam ruang lingkup dan kesenian. Perhiasan emas dalam bentuk diadem, cincin, anting-anting dan kalung dengan hiasan filigree dan granulasi yang kecil dan rumit merupakan sumber bukti lain yang kaya yang menunjukkan keterampilan pekerja logam Tarentum dan kekayaan kota pada abad ke-4 hingga ke-3 SM. Banyak artefak berasal dari makam dan tidak ada yang lebih menarik daripada Makam Atlet, makam pemenang Tarentum di Olimpiade lengkap dengan cakram, pemberat, dan kepala lembingnya dan, yang menyentuh, hadiah yang dia menangkan dalam hidup. , amphora figur hitam yang diberikan kepada semua pemenang.

Disebutkan secara khusus harus dibuat dari banyak mosaik lantai halus dari tempat tinggal Romawi yang megah di kota itu. Yang terbesar dan terpelihara dengan baik adalah mosaik akhir abad ke-2 atau awal abad ke-3 M dengan empat panel utama yang menggambarkan penculikan nimfa dan adegan tambahan perburuan macan tutul, singa, dan harimau. Panel samping yang lebih kecil menunjukkan burung dan buah.

Mosaik lantai indah lainnya memiliki bentuk geometris dan bunga murni dengan lingkaran tengah besar yang dilipat velarium (tirai) diberikan kualitas hampir tiga dimensi dengan menggunakan berbagai naungan tessera bagian-bagian. Mosaik persegi yang sempurna ini berasal dari abad ke-2 M dan milik rumah Romawi atau domus di Tarentum tengah.

Terakhir, salah satu potongan bintang dari Taranto kuno dan yang menyambut pengunjung museum arkeologi adalah patung perunggu Zeus. Berkencan dengan c. 530 SM, sosok itu pernah memegang petir di satu tangan dan elang di tangan lainnya. Patung itu awalnya ditempatkan di ibu kota Doric marmer dan berdiri di sebuah tempat perlindungan di kota yang didedikasikan untuk kepala para dewa Olympian, pengingat yang kuat tentang asal-usul Yunani dari salah satu kota kuno terkaya dan paling berpengaruh di Italia selatan.


Silsilah Tarentum (di Kabupaten Allegheny, PA)

CATATAN: Catatan tambahan yang berlaku untuk Tarentum juga ditemukan melalui halaman Allegheny County dan Pennsylvania.

Catatan Kelahiran Tarentum

Catatan Pemakaman Tarentum

Pemakaman Hati Kudus Arsip Web Gen AS

Pemakaman Saint Clement Miliaran Kuburan

Pemakaman St. Clement Arsip Web Gen AS

Catatan Sensus Tarentum

Sensus Federal Amerika Serikat, 1790-1940 Pencarian Keluarga

Catatan Gereja Tarentum

Direktori Kota Tarentum

Catatan Kematian Tarentum

Catatan Imigrasi Tarentum

Catatan Tanah Tarentum

Catatan Peta Tarentum

Peta Tarentum, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 1901. Perpustakaan Kongres

Peta Asuransi Kebakaran Sanborn dari Tarentum, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Februari 1897 Perpustakaan Kongres

Peta Asuransi Kebakaran Sanborn dari Tarentum, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Oktober 1891 Perpustakaan Kongres

Catatan Pernikahan Tarentum

Koran Tarentum dan Obituari

Koran Offline untuk Tarentum

Menurut Direktori Surat Kabar AS, surat kabar berikut dicetak, jadi mungkin ada salinan kertas atau mikrofilm yang tersedia. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut tentang cara menemukan surat kabar offline, lihat artikel kami tentang Menemukan Surat Kabar Offline.

Waktu Lembah Allegheny. (Tarentum, Allegheny Co., Pa.) 1881-1888

Telegram malam. (Tarentum, Pa.) 1914-1923

Telegram Tarentum. (Tarentum, Pa.) 1896-1914

Berita Harian Lembah. (Tarentum, Pa.) 1904-1968

Catatan Probate Tarentum

Rekor Sekolah Tarentum

Catatan Pajak Tarentum

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Garis Waktu Sejarah

(Valley New Dispatch – 23 Juli 1995)

1734 - Indian Shawnee mendiami Lembah Allegheny.

1795 - Rusa Barat, Rusa Timur, Frazer, Springdale, Kotapraja Springdale, Cheswick, Fawn, Tarentum, Brackenridge, Harrison, yang dikenal sebagai Kotapraja Rusa.

1805 – Jalan raya dari Sharpsburg ke Freeport ditemukan minyak.

1821 – Rumah Burtner dibangun.

1826 – Konstruksi dimulai di kanal melalui Lembah.

1829 – Kanal mulai beroperasi di Tarentum.

1836 – Kotapraja Rusa dipecah menjadi Rusa Timur dan Rusa Barat Rusa Barat tetap seperti sekarang ini.

1842 – Tarentum mundur dari East Deer.

1852 – Baris pertama rumah yang dibangun di Federal Street oleh Penn Salt Manufacturing Co. untuk karyawan.

1853 – Kanal diisi untuk membuat tempat tidur untuk rel kereta api Keluarga Harrison menetap di atas Natrona.

1858 – Fawn menarik diri dari East Deer, tetapi masih berisi Harrison dan Brackenridge modern.

1860 – 800 orang yang dipekerjakan oleh Penn Salt Natrona populasinya mencapai 1.870.

1862 – Lebih dari 200 orang Natrona mendaftar untuk bertugas di Union Army.

1863 – Harrison memisahkan diri dari Fawn pada 7 Februari.

1868 – Populasi Harrison dilaporkan mencapai 3.000.

1880 – Potts Mansion dibangun.

1888 – 72 jam seminggu, $1 skala upah sehari di Penn Salt.

1889 – West Penn Press diselenggarakan dan berlokasi di North Canal Street, mencetak Natrona News.

1895 – Troli pertama melewati Natrona, Tarentum Traction Company.

1896 – Api menghancurkan kilang logam di Penn Salt Fidelity Glass Company dimulai di Brackenridge.

1901 – Brackenridge memisahkan diri dari Harrison First National Bank of Natrona yang diselenggarakan, terletak di Federal Street.

1901 – Allegheny Iron and Steel mulai beroperasi.

1902 – Sekolah Pond Street dibangun.

1904 – Valley Daily News diselenggarakan oleh Charles Howe.

1906 – Rumah sakit Valley diselenggarakan dan beroperasi di Tarentum Barat.

1907 – Natrona Volunteer Fire Company No. 1 dibentuk.

1907 – Jam kerja industri baja adalah 12 jam sehari, 24 jam setiap Minggu kedua.

1918 – Kebakaran menghancurkan Penn Salt Wabah flu membunuh ratusan orang.

1920 – Truk pemadam kebakaran pertama yang dibeli oleh Natrona Fire Company seharga $12.500 untuk beton 40 kaki pertama yang diselesaikan di Natrona Dam.

1921 – Pengerjaan Bendungan Natrona dihentikan karena kekurangan uang Sekolah Tinggi Harbrack dibuka, 375 anak tangga kayu dibangun dari Natrona ke puncak bukit hingga sekolah dibuka Bank Warga Natrona.

1923 – Sistem sanitasi Harrison Township sebagian beroperasi.

1927 – Kunci No, 4 di Sungai Allegheny secara resmi dibuka untuk lalu lintas sungai umum Nama Kantor Pos Birdville diubah menjadi Kantor Pos Natrona Heights.

1929 – Sekolah Birdville dibangun.

1930 – Allegheny Steel Company bergabung dengan West Penn Steel Company penjemputan pos udara pertama di Natrona Air Field Natrona Citizens National Bank bergabung dengan First National Bank of Natrona.

1931 – Harrison Township pajak retribusi di 7,5 pabrik.

1940 – Bus mengambil alih jalur troli Saluran pembuangan badai Natrona diizinkan untuk berjalan dari bukit melalui Chestnut dan Garfield Streets menyusuri gang ke sungai.


Nick J. Petrishen, pemilik Nick Chevrolet di Tarentum, meninggal pada usia 77 tahun

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Malam sebelum dia menderita stroke yang akhirnya merenggut nyawanya, Nick Petrishen Jr. pergi bersama putra satu-satunya untuk menonton film &ldquoFord v Ferrari.&rdquo

&ldquoDia sangat menikmatinya sepanjang waktu,&rdquo kata putranya, Nick S. Petrishen, 50, dari Natrona Heights. &ldquoBagian yang ironis adalah pria Chevy lokal ini mendapat dua pukulan setelah film &lsquoFord v Ferrari&rsquo.&rdquo

Nick J. Petrishen Jr., pemilik, operator, dan wakil presiden Nick Chevrolet di Tarentum selama hampir 60 tahun, meninggal di rumahnya pada 29 November. Dia berusia 77 tahun.

Karakter yang lebih besar dari kehidupan yang dikenal berteman dengan orang-orang yang melindungi dealernya dan kemurahan hatinya dalam memberi untuk tujuan komunitas, Petrishen juga adalah penggemar mobil yang membuat truk dorong, yang merupakan truk dengan batang dorong di bagian depan untuk mendapatkan mobil balap dimulai.

Dia juga secara teratur menghadiri balapan dari Lernerville Speedway di Sarver ke Daytona Beach, Florida.

&ldquoDia menyukai mobil otot tua, apa pun yang bisa melaju cepat. Dale Earnhardt (Sr.) adalah favoritnya,&rdquo kata Petrishen. &ldquoDia dekat dengan banyak pengemudi lokal. Setelah dia mengalami stroke (awal), dia berada di kursi roda, dan setiap kali saya membawanya, mereka akan mengumumkan kepada orang banyak bahwa dia hadir.&rdquo

&ldquoKami baru saja membawanya ke balapan di Lernerville, dan beberapa pembalap benar-benar datang sebelum balapan dan duduk bersamanya dan berbicara dengannya di tribun,&rdquo kata putrinya Michele Petrishen, 54, dari Bemus Point, N.Y.

Nick Petrishen Jr., seperti empat saudara perempuan dan satu saudara laki-lakinya, mulai bekerja di bisnis keluarganya di Power City Motors di Springdale saat remaja. Dia tidak punya banyak pilihan dalam masalah ini, tetapi dia tetap bersemangat untuk melakukannya, menetap sebagai salesman.

&ldquoDia pasti dilahirkan dan dibesarkan untuk ini,&rdquo kata putranya, Nick S. Petrishen. &ldquoDia biasa memberi tahu semua orang bahwa dia memiliki pekerjaan terbaik di dunia karena dia dibayar seumur hidupnya untuk (BS) sebagai penjual mobil.&rdquo

Tuan Petrishen memiliki hati yang besar dan suka membantu orang lain, secara finansial mendukung atletik sekolah menengah serta tim Liga Kecil. Dia juga memberikan dukungan kepada polisi setempat dan departemen pemadam kebakaran dan organisasi amal lainnya.

&ldquoSetelah stroke pertamanya, salah satu cerita yang dibagikan oleh salah satu petugas EMS kepada saya di rumah sakit adalah, &lsquoAyahmu menyumbang untuk layanan ambulans tetapi dia tidak melakukannya melalui surat, dia melakukannya secara pribadi,&rsquo &rdquo Michele Petrishen berkata. &ldquoDia secara pribadi akan memberikan cek kepada mereka.&rdquo

Anak-anaknya setuju bahwa ayah mereka memiliki selera humor yang tajam, dan itu membantunya bertahan dari dua pukulan pertamanya.

Nick S. Petrishen mengingat sebuah cerita tentang bagaimana ayahnya melengkapi manekin seukuran manusia Mr. Goodwrench di dealer dengan topi, kacamata, pistol palsu, dan rokok yang menyala. Itu mengejutkan seorang pekerja kebersihan di dealer.

&ldquoDan cerita berlanjut bahwa dia berdiri di sana dengan tangan di udara selama sekitar lima menit sampai rokok keluar dari mulutnya,&rdquo Nick S. Petrishen berkata.

Putri lainnya, Bridgette Ladie, 51, dari Buffalo Township, ingat membawa ayahnya ke konser Frankie Valli dan Four Seasons. Dia bilang ayahnya selalu mendengarkan orang tua.

&ldquoSaya ingat saat bersama ayah saya mengendarai mobil Caprice convertible putih, dan saya akan duduk di kursi depan dengan kepala di pangkuannya, dan dari atas ke bawah dan mendengarkan lagu-lagu lama. Dan saya hanya akan tertidur,&rdquo katanya.

Tuan Petrishen meninggalkan seorang istri selama 55 tahun, Loretta Susan (Szymkowiak) anak-anak Petrishen Michele Petrishen dari Bemus Point, NY, Bridgette Ladie dari Buffalo Township, dan Nick S. Petrishen dari Natrona Heights tiga cucu dan empat cicit dan saudara kandung Carol Ann Koprivnikar dari Natrona Heights, Rose Mary Koprivnikar dari Natrona Heights, Janice Langham dari Lower Burrell, John J. Petrishen dari Lower Burrell dan Sue Zaleski dari Natrona Heights.

Paul Guggenheimer adalah staf penulis Tribune-Review. Anda dapat menghubungi Paul di 724-226-7706 atau [email protected]

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Yayasan sejarah Tarentum untuk menandai hari jadi ke-35

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Untuk memperingati 35 tahun sejak didirikan, Tarentum History and Landmarks Foundation Inc. akan menyelenggarakan makan malam pada tanggal 30 Mei.

Yayasan tersebut, disewa dan didirikan pada 11 Mei 1973, meneliti dan menyusun sejarah lokal, kata Direktur Eksekutif yayasan Robert Lucas. Dia mengatakan yayasan itu penting karena memberikan "wawasan menyeluruh tentang sejarah" daerah tersebut.

11 Mei juga merupakan tanggal lahir Henry Marie Brackenridge, yang mendirikan Tarentum. Kota itu ditata pada tahun 1829, kata Lucas. Meskipun pemukim pertama mulai pindah ke Lembah pada 1790-an, Lucas mengatakan itu tidak dianggap aman dari pembantaian India sampai 1796.

Yayasan ini menerbitkan majalah triwulanan, Tarentum Times, yang dikirimkan kepada para anggotanya. Cindy Homburg, anggota dewan direksi, mengatakan setiap terbitan berisi "cerita berbeda tentang Tarentum lama dan gambar Tarentum lama."

Yayasan ini juga menyusun lembaran air mata koran, yang akhirnya diubah menjadi mikrofilm. Itu juga menyimpan file silsilah, meletakkan plakat tengara pada bangunan dan mengumpulkan foto-foto daerah itu, kata Lucas.

Lucas mengatakan penting bagi warga dan anggota yayasan untuk menempatkan identitas di bagian belakang foto. Warga dapat menyumbangkan bahan-bahan sejarah, termasuk foto-foto, ke yayasan dengan menghubungi Lucas.

Yayasan mengumpulkan bahan-bahan sejarah, tetapi tidak mengumpulkan artefak, kata Lucas.

"Terutama, kami fokus pada sejarah dan orang-orang, dan kontribusi mereka di timur laut Kabupaten Allegheny," katanya.

Lucas, seorang warga Tarentum, mengatakan bahwa anggota yayasan tersebar di seluruh negeri. Lebih dari 700 orang telah bergabung sejak 1973, dan beberapa tinggal jauh seperti Kanada, Alaska, Hawaii, dan California, katanya.

Baik anggota maupun masyarakat diundang ke jamuan makan malam yang akan dihidangkan oleh Robin & Company of Freeport. Ini akan menjadi makan malam pertama yang diadakan yayasan dalam lima tahun.

Setelah makan malam, pertunjukan slide Tarentum 100 tahun yang lalu akan ditampilkan. Memorabilia dan kartu pos Homburg sendiri akan dipajang.

Yayasan tidak memiliki properti. Lucas menangani keuangan yayasan dari kantor pusatnya, dan rapat dewan diadakan di First United Presbyterian Church, 913 anggota Lock St. Foundation memilih anggota dewan.

"Ini adalah organisasi yang menyenangkan dan menyenangkan," kata Homburg, "dan ini bagus untuk orang-orang yang mencintai sejarah dan ingin melestarikannya." Informasi tambahan:

Akan datang

Siapa: Tarentum History and Landmarks Foundation Inc.

Apa: Makan malam untuk memperingati ulang tahun ke-35 yayasan.

Dimana: First United Presbyterian Church, 913 Lock St., Tarentum.

Detail: Tiket seharga $10 -- dan harus dibeli hari ini.

Mereka tersedia di lokasi Harrison dan Tarentum di Perpustakaan Komunitas Lembah Allegheny.

Tiket juga tersedia dengan mengirimkan cek hari ini ke Tarentum History and Landmarks Foundation di P.O. Kotak 1776 Tarentum, PA 15084. Permintaan yang dikirim melalui pos harus sudah diterima paling lambat hari Selasa. Informasi tambahan:

Bagaimana cara bergabung?

Mereka yang tertarik untuk bergabung dapat mengirimkan biaya keanggotaan tahunan sebesar $10 ke Tarentum History and Landmarks Foundation Inc. di P.O. Kotak 1776 Tarentum, PA 15084.

Dukung Jurnalisme Lokal dan bantu kami terus meliput kisah-kisah yang penting bagi Anda dan komunitas Anda.

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Tur ke landmark Tarentum yang bersejarah untuk menandai tahun ke-175 borough

Tiket Masuk: Gratis, tetapi disarankan untuk melakukan reservasi. Hubungi 724-612-0076. Tur bus kedua akan dimulai pukul 1 siang. jika pemesanan menjaminnya.

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Tarentum telah mengumpulkan banyak landmark dalam 175 tahun sejarahnya.

Dan pada hari Sabtu, landmark tersebut akan memiliki cerita untuk diceritakan.

Tur bus ke 15 landmark bersejarah Tarentum akan dimulai pukul 10 pagi di gubuk makanan ringan Riverview Park.

Nyonya rumah dan sejarawan lokal Cindy Homburg akan memandu mereka yang melakukan perjalanan ke landmark, dan menceritakan latar belakang masing-masing.

"Tur akan memakan waktu sekitar dua jam," kata Homburg. "Kami akan bisa masuk ke beberapa, tapi tidak semua, landmark."

Salah satu pemberhentiannya adalah Rumah Malarkey di East 10th Avenue, dibangun pada tahun 1892 dan sekarang menjadi rumah kantor hukum Paz, Paz dan Paz.

"Itu adalah Rumah Pemakaman Walters dari tahun 1940-an sampai keluarga kami membelinya pada tahun '84," kata pengacara John Paz. "Saya tahu itu adalah bangunan yang sangat tua. Kami tidak membelinya karena sejarahnya, tetapi kami telah memulihkannya."

Paz telah memasang cetakan wallpaper bersejarah bergaya Willliamsburg, menutup teras depan dan menempatkan furnitur untuk melengkapi arsitektur era Kekaisaran Prancis.

Ruang makan lama telah dipugar sebagai ruang konferensi.

"Akan ada tombol untuk memanggil pelayan itu," kata Paz. "Ada ruang dansa di lantai tiga, dan ada tangga ke atap."

Bata Malarkey House disediakan oleh McFetridge Brick Co. dari Creighton.

"Tempatnya indah sekali," kata Homburg. "Setelah keluarga Malarkey membangunnya, mereka pergi ke Barat, tetapi kembali ke Tarentum."

Bangunan lain dengan plakat penunjukan tengara bersejarah termasuk Pollock Masonic Lodge di Lock Street, dibangun pada tahun 1907.

Pondok itu dinamai setelah Wakil Grand Master Distrik Alexander M. Pollock.

"Ini tentang satu-satunya landmark yang masih digunakan karena alasan itu dibangun," kata Homburg.

Salah satu landmark lainnya adalah Lardin House Hotel, yang terletak di sudut Fourth Avenue dan Wood Street.

Salah satu hotel paling awal di Tarentum, dibangun pada tahun 1864 oleh Daniel Lardin.

Tamu-tamu penting di sana termasuk Presiden William Howard Taft, penjaga perbatasan Kit Carson dan pembela kesederhanaan Carrie Nation, yang memberi kuliah di Tarentum Free Methodist Church tentang dosa alkohol dan merokok.

John B. Ford, pendiri industri kaca pelat Amerika dan wilayah Ford City, tinggal di Lardin House begitu dia menemukan bahwa pasir di tepi Sungai Allegheny kondusif untuk pembuatan kaca.

Perhentian lain dalam tur akan mencakup stasiun kereta api Tarentum, troli tua dan gudang bus yang sekarang menjadi rumah Highland Tire, YMCA lama, Sekolah Dasar Grandview, sebelumnya Sekolah Menengah Tarentum, Toko Obat Chapman, sudut Lock dan Fifth the Kennedy Bank di Lock and Fifth the Humes House di East Ninth the Kennedy House di Lock Street the Riverview Park monumen benteng pertahanan di mana Bull Creek bertemu dengan Sungai Allegheny dan penunjukan bersejarah pendiri Tarentum, Hakim Henry Marie Brackenridge, di First Commonwealth Bank, sudut Keenam Timur dan Corbet.

Tur ini merupakan bagian dari perayaan ulang tahun ke 175 Tarentum.

George Guido adalah seorang penulis lepas.

Dukung Jurnalisme Lokal dan bantu kami terus meliput kisah-kisah yang penting bagi Anda dan komunitas Anda.


Tentang Masyarakat Sejarah Alle-Kiski

The Alle-Kiski Historical Society, yang terletak di Tarentum, PA, adalah organisasi lokal yang didedikasikan untuk mempelajari dan melestarikan sejarah Tarentum. The Historical Society menumbuhkan apresiasi masa lalu, dengan penekanan pada sejarah lokal. Selain mengumpulkan dan melestarikan artefak sejarah, foto, dan cerita pribadi, Historical Society melakukan penelitian terhadap keluarga dan bisnis lokal Allegheny County, yang mereka presentasikan kepada publik melalui pameran. The Historical Society juga menyediakan catatan sejarah publik.


Gereja Katolik Bizantium Santo Petrus dan Paulus Tarentum, PA

Pada tanggal lahir SS. Gereja Peter dan Paul, 3 Juli 1918, sekitar 75 keluarga asal Rusyn dan Hongaria bertemu di Borough of Brackenridge. Paroki itu didirikan secara resmi pada 19 Juli 1918. Tak lama kemudian paroki itu membeli sebuah gereja dan rumah di Mile Lock Lane di Brackenridge.

Pastor residen pertama, Pastor Gabriel Chopey, diangkat pada tahun 1921. Paroki berkembang pesat. Berbagai kelompok paroki diorganisir, termasuk perkumpulan altar dan rosario, perkumpulan paduan suara dan klub pria. Seiring bertambahnya jemaat, mereka memutuskan untuk memindahkan lokasi gereja dari Brackenridge ke Tarentum Barat. Pada tahun 1929 paroki membeli St. Peter’s Hall dan properti yang bersebelahan di West Eighth Avenue di Tarentum. Mereka mengubah gedung ini menjadi gereja paroki yang melayani paroki selama 25 tahun ke depan.

Pada tahun 1952 Uskup Daniel Ivancho mengangkat Pastor Michael G. Pipik sebagai pendeta dengan instruksi untuk membangun gereja baru di daerah yang sesuai. Setelah pencarian yang panjang, paroki itu beruntung mendapatkan Smith Estate di 339 East Tenth Avenue dan properti yang berdekatan. Proyek pertama adalah merombak rumah, yang menjadi pastoran paroki. Itu diberkati pada tanggal 15 November 1953.

Peletakan batu pertama untuk gereja baru pada tanggal 4 April 1954. Gereja ini diresmikan oleh Uskup Nicholas Elko pada tanggal 6 Mei 1956. Uskup Elko kembali ke gereja pada tanggal 8 Juni 1958, untuk memberkati jendela kaca patri, mural dinding dan kuil marmer. Pada tanggal 4 Mei 1969 paroki itu merayakan Hari Jadinya yang ke-50 ketika Uskup Stephen J. Kocisko (saat itu Uskup Agung yang ditunjuk sebagai Archeparky yang baru dibentuk) memberkati Meja Suci (altar) marmer yang baru di gereja.

Anggota paroki tinggal di seluruh Lembah Allegheny empat kabupaten: kabupaten Allegheny, Armstrong, Butler dan Westmoreland. Kompleks paroki terletak di sepanjang East Tenth Avenue, yang merupakan jalan raya utama yang menghubungkan Natrona Heights, Brackenridge dan Tarentum. Berjarak kurang dari satu blok dari Tarentum Bridge Road (sebelumnya Exit 14 dari jalan tol Route 28 Allegheny Valley), yang melintasi Sungai Allegheny ke New Kensington, Lower Burrell dan Arnold. Gereja ini terlihat dari jalan keluar Rute 28 dan dari Jembatan Tarentum saat menyeberang dari New Kensington.

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, upaya substansial telah dilakukan untuk memelihara dan memperbarui properti paroki. Sistem pemanas dan pendingin udara baru telah dipasang di gereja dan pastoran. Pada tahun 1998 karpet baru dipasang di gereja dan kaca pelindung ditempatkan di semua jendela kaca patri. Pastoran memiliki atap baru, kamar mandi dan lantai.

SS. Gereja Peter dan Paul, dengan sisi batu pasir berwarna dan atap batu tulis merah, tetap menjadi permata lingkungan dan komunitas.


Kamus Geografi Yunani dan Romawi (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.

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TARENTUM

Tarentum adalah kota Yunani, sebuah koloni Sparta, didirikan dalam beberapa tahun setelah dua koloni Achaean Sybaris dan Crotona. Keadaan yang menyebabkan pendiriannya terkait dengan beberapa variasi oleh Antiochus dan Ephorus (keduanya dikutip oleh Strabo), tetapi kedua penulis setuju pada fakta utama bahwa para penjajah adalah sekelompok pemuda, yang lahir selama Perang Messenian Pertama dalam keadaan yang membuang kelahiran mereka noda anak haram, di mana mereka diperlakukan dengan penghinaan oleh warga negara lain dan setelah upaya gagal untuk menciptakan revolusi di Sparta, mereka memutuskan untuk beremigrasi dalam tubuh di bawah seorang pemimpin bernama Phalanthus. Mereka dibedakan oleh julukan Partheniae, dalam referensi ke asal mereka. Phalanthus, yang tampaknya merupakan salah satu kelas yang diremehkan, dan telah menjadi kepala komplotan di Sparta, setelah berkonsultasi dengan oracle di Delphi, menjadi pemimpin dan pendiri koloni baru. (Antiokhus, hal. Jerami. vi. hal.278 Eforus, ib. P. 279 melayani iklan Aen. 3.551 Diod. 15.66 Justin, 3.4 Scymn. Bab 332 .) Baik Antiochus dan Ephorus mewakili mereka sebagai membangun diri mereka sendiri tanpa kesulitan di tempat, dan diterima dengan ramah oleh penduduk asli dan ini jauh lebih mungkin daripada pernyataan Pausanias, yang menurutnya mereka menemukan diri mereka dalam peperangan terus-menerus dan itu tidak sampai setelah perjuangan panjang bahwa mereka mampu membuat diri mereka master dari Tarentum. ( Jeda. 10.10.6 .) Penulis yang sama mewakili kota itu seperti yang sebelumnya ditempati oleh suku-suku asli, dan sudah menjadi kota yang besar dan kuat, tetapi ini sangat tidak mungkin. Nama itu, bagaimanapun, mungkin berasal dari asli, dan tampaknya telah diturunkan di depan sungai kecil atau aliran yang selalu terus dikenal sebagai Taras meskipun, seperti biasa, orang Yunani menurunkannya dari seorang pahlawan eponymous bernama Taras, who was represented as a son of Neptune and a nymph of the country. (Paus. Ib. § 8.) It is certain that the hero Taras continued to be an object of special worship at Tarentum, while Phalanthus, who was revered as their Oekist, was frequently associated with him, and gradually became the subject of many legends of a very mythical character, in some of which he appears to have been confounded with Taras himself. ( Jeda. 10.10 . § § 6--8, 13.10 Serv. iklan Aen. l.c.) Nevertheless, there is no reason to doubt the historical character of Phalanthus, or the Lacedaemonian origin of Tarentum, which was confirmed by numerous local names and religious observances still retained there down to a very late period. (Pol. 8.30, 35.) The Roman poets also abound in allusions to this origin of the Tarentines. ( Hor. Karm. 3.5.56 , 2.6. 11 Ovid. bertemu. 15.50, &c.) The date of the foundation of Tarentum is given by Hieronymus as B.C. 708, and this, which is in accordance with the circumstances related in connection with it, is probably correct, though no other author has mentioned the precise date. (Hieron. Kron. ad Ol. xviii.)

The history of Tarentum, for the first two centuries of its existence, is, like that of most other cities of Magna Graecia, almost wholly unknown. But the main fact is well attested that it attained to great power and prosperity, though apparently at first overshadowed by the superior power of the Achaean cities, so that it was not till a later period that it assumed the predominant position among the cities of Magna Graecia, which it ultimately attained. There can be no doubt that it owed this prosperity mainly to the natural advantages of its situation. ( Scymn. Bab 332 - 336 Jerami. vi. p.278 .) Though its territory was not so fertile, or so well adapted for the growth of grain as those of Metapontum and Siris, it was admirably suited for the growth of olives, and its pastures produced wool of the finest quality, while its port, or inner sea as it was called, abounded in shell-fish of all descriptions, among which the Murex, which produced the celebrated purple dye, was the most important and valuable. But it was especially the excellence of its port to which Tarentum owed its rapid rise to opulence and power. This was not only landlocked and secure, but was the only safe harbour of any extent on the whole shores of the Tarentine gulf and as neither Brundusium nor Hydruntum, on the opposite side of the Messapian peninsula, had as yet attained to any eminence, or fallen into the hands of a seafaring people, the port of Tarentum became the chief emporium for the commerce of all this part of Italy. (Pol. 10.1 Flor. 1.18.3 .) The story of Arion, as related by Herodotus ( 1.24 ) indicates the existence of extensive commercial relations with Corinth and other cities of Greece as early as the reign of Periander, B.C. 625--585.

As the Tarentines gradually extended their power over the adjoining territories, they naturally came into frequent collision with the native tribes of the interior,--the Messapians and Peucetians and the first events of their history recorded to us relate to their wars with these nations. Their offerings at Delphi noticed by Pausanias ( 10.10.6 , 13.10 ), recorded victories over both these nations, in one of which it appears that Opis, making of the Iapygians, who had come to the assistance of the Peucetians, was slain but we have no knowledge of the dates or circumstances of these battles. It would appear, however, that the Tarentines were continually gaining ground, and making themselves masters of the Messapian towns one after the other, until their progress was checked by a great disaster, their own forces, together with those of the Rhegians, who had been sent to their assistance, being totally defeated by the barbarians with great slaughter. ( hdt. 7.170 Diod. 11.52 .). So heavy was their [p. 2.1096] loss that Herodotus, without stating the numbers, says it was the greatest slaughter of Greeks that had occurred up to his time. The loss seems to have fallen especially upon the nobles and wealthier citizens, so that it became the occasion of a political revolution, and the government, which had previously been an aristocracy, became thenceforth a pure democracy. (Arist. Pol. 5.3.) Of the internal condition and constitution of Tarentum previously to this time, we know scarcely anything, but it seems probable that its institutions were at first copied from those of the parent city of Sparta. Aristotle speaks of its government as a πολίτεια, in the sense of a mixed government or commonwealth while Herodotus incidentally notices a king of Tarentum (3.156), not long before the Persian War, who was doubtless a king after the Spartan model. The institutions of a democratic tendency noticed with commendation by Aristotle ( Aristot. Pol. 6.5 ) probably belong to the later and democratic period of the constitution. We hear but little also of Tarentum in connection with the revolutions arising out of the influence exercised by the Pythagoreans: that sect had apparently not established itself so strongly there as in the Achaean cities though many Tarentines are enumerated among the disciples of Pythagoras, and it is clear that the city had not altogether escaped their influence. (Iambl. Vit. Pyth. 262, 266 Porphyr. Vit. Pyth. 56.)

The defeat of the Tarentines by the Messapians, which is referred by Diodorus to B.C. 473 ( Diod. 11.52 ), is the first event in the history of Tarentum to which we can assign a definite date. Great as that blow may have been, it did not produce any permanent effect in checking the progress of the city, which still appears as one of the most flourishing in Magna Graecia. We next hear of the Tarentines as interfering to prevent the Thurians, who had been recently established in Italy, from making themselves masters of the district of the Siritis. On what grounds the Tarentines could lay claim to this district, which was separated from them by the intervening territory of Metapontum, we are not informed but they carried on war for some time against the Thurians, who were supported by the Spartan exile Cleandridas until at length the dispute was terminated by a compromise, and a new colony named Heracleia was founded in the contested territory (B.C. 432), in which the citizens of both states participated, but it was agreed that it should be considered as a colony of Tarentum. (Antioch. ap. Jerami. vi. hal.264 Diod. 12.23 , 36 .) At the time of the Athenian expedition to Sicily, the Tarentines kept aloof from the contest, and contented themselves with refusing all supplies and assistance to the Athenian fleet ( Thuc. 6.44 ), while they afforded shelter to the Corinthian and Laconian ships under Gylippus (Ib. 104), but they did not even prevent the second fleet under Demosthenes and Eurymedon from touching at the islands of the Choerades, immediately opposite to the entrance of their harbour, and taking on board some auxiliaries furnished by the Messapians. (Id. 7.33.)

Another long interval now elapses, during which the history of Tarentum is to us almost a blank yet the few notices we hear of the city represent it as in a state of great prosperity. We are told that at one time (apparently about 380--360 B.C.) Archytas, the Pythagorean philosopher, exercised a paramount influence over the government, and filled the office of Strategus or general no less than seven times, though it was prohibited by law to hold it more than once and was successful in every campaign. ( D. L. 8.4 . § § 79--82.) It is evident, therefore, that the Tarentines were far from enjoying unbroken peace. The hostilities alluded to were probably but a renewal of their old warfare with the Messapians but the security of the Greek cities in Italy was now menaced by two more formidable foes, Dionysius of Syracuse in the south, and the Lucanians on the north and west. The Tarentines, indeed seem to have at first looked upon both dangers with comparative indifference: their remote position secured them from the immediate brunt of the attack, and it is even doubtful whether they at first joined in the general league of the Greek cities to resist the danger which threatened them. Meanwhile, the calamities which befel the more southern cities, the destruction of some by Dionysius, and the humiliation of others, tended only to raise Tarentum in comparison, while that city itself enjoyed an immunity from all hostile attacks and it seems certain that it was at this period that Tarentum first rose to the preponderating position among the Greek cities in Italy, which it thenceforth enjoyed without a rival. It was apparently as an acknowledgment of that superiority, that when Tarentum had joined the confederacy of the Greek cities, the place of meeting of their congress was fixed at the Tarentine colony of Heracleia. ( Jerami. vi. p.280 .)

It was impossible for the Tarentines any longer to keep aloof from the contest with the Lucanians, whose formidable power was now beginning to threaten all the cities in Magna Graecia and they now appear as taking a leading part in opposing the progress of those barbarians. But they were not content with their own resources, and called in successively to their assistance several foreign leaders and generals of renown. The first of these was the Spartan king Archidamus, who crossed over into Italy with a considerable force. Of his operations there we have no account, but he appears to have carried on the war for some years, as Diodorus places his first landing in Italy in B.C. 346, while the battle in which he was defeated and slain was not fought till the same time as that of Chaeroneia, B.C. 338. ( Diod. 16.63 , 88 .) This action, in which Archidamus himself, and almost all the troops which he had brought with him from Greece perished, was fought (as we are told), not with the Lucanians, but with the Messapians, in the neighbourlhood of Manduria, only 24 miles from Tarentum (Plut. Agis. 3 Jeda. 3.10.5 Diod. l.c.) but there can be no doubt, however, that both nations were united, and that the Lucanians lent their support to the Messapians, as the old enemies of Tarentum. Henceforth, indeed, we find both names continually united. A few years after the death of Archidamus, Alexander, king of Epirus, was invited by the Tarentines, and landed in Italy, B.C. 332. The operations of his successive campaigns, which were continued till B.C. 326, are very imperfectly known to us, but he appears to have first turned his arms against the Messapians, and compelled them to conclude a peace with the Tarentines, before he proceeded to make war upon the Lucanians and Bruttians. But his arms were attended with considerable success in this quarter also: he defeated the Samnites and Lucanians in a great battle near Paestum, and penetrated into the heart of the Bruttian [p. 2.1097] territory. Meanwhile, however, he had quarrelled with his allies the Tarentines, so that he turned against them, took their colony of Heracleia, and endeavoured to transfer the congress of the Greek cities from thence to a place on the river Acalandrus, in the territory of Thurii. ( Jerami. vi. p.280 hidup 8.24 Hanya. 12.2 .) Hence his death, in B.C. 226, only liberated the Tarentines from an enemy instead of depriving them of an ally. They appear from this time to have either remained tranquil or carried on the contest single-handed, till B.C. 303, when we find them again invoking foreign assistance, and, as on a former occasion, sending to Sparta for aid. This was again furnished them, and a large army of mercenaries landed at Tarentum under Cleonymus, the uncle of the Spartan king. But though he compelled the Messapians and Lucanians to sue for peace, Cleonymus soon alienated the minds of his Greek allies by his arrogance and luxurious habits, and became the object of general hatred before he quitted Italy. ( Diod. 20.104 .) According to Strabo, the Tarentines subsequently called in the assistance of Agathocles ( Jerami. vi. p.280 ) but we find no mention of this elsewhere, and Diodorus tells us that he concluded an alliance with the Iapygians and Peucetians, which could hardly have been done with favourable intentions towards Tarentum. (Diod. xxi. p. 490.)

Not long after this the Tarentines first came into collision with a more formidable foe than their neighbours, the Messapians and Lucanians. The wars of the Romans with the Samnites, in which the descendants of the latter people, the Apulians and Lucanians, were from time to time involved, had rendered the name and power of Rome familiar to the Greek cities on the Tarentine gulf and coast of the Adriatic, though their arms were not carried into that part of Italy till about B.C. 283, when they rendered assistance to the Thurians against the Lucanians [THURII]. But long before this, as early as the commencement of the Second Samnite War (B.C. 326), the Tarentines are mentioned in Roman history as supporting the Neapolitans with promises of succour, which, however, they never sent and afterwards exciting the Lucanians to war against the Romans. ( hidup 8.27 .) Again, in B.C. 321 we are told that they sent a haughty embassy to command the Samnites and Romans to desist from hostilities, and threatened to declare war on whichever party refused to obey. (Id. 9.14.) But on this occasion also they did not put their threat in execution. At a subsequent period, probably about B.C. 303 (Arnold's Roma, jilid ii. P. 315), the Tarentines concluded a treaty with Rome, by which it was stipulated that no Roman ships of war should pass the Lacinian cape. (Appian, Samnit. 7.) It was therefore a direct breach of this treaty when, in B.C. 302, a Roman squadron of ten ships under L. Cornelius, which had been sent to the assistance of the Thurians, entered the Tarentine gulf, and even approached within sight of the city. The Tarentines, whose hostile disposition was already only half concealed, and who are said to have been the prime movers in organising the confederacy against Rome which led to the Fourth Samnite War ( Zonar. 8.2 .), immediately attacked the Roman ships, sunk four of them, and took one. After this they proceeded to attack the Thurians on account of their having called in the Romans, expelled the Roman garrison, and made themselves masters of the city. (Appian, Samn. 7.1 Zonar. 8.2 .) The Romans sent an embassy to Tarentum to complain of these outrages but their demands being refused, and their ambassador treated with contunmely, they had now no choice but to declare war upon the Tarentines, B.C. 281. (Appian, l.c. § 2 Zonar. l.c. Dio Cas. NS. 145.) Nevertheless, the war was at first carried on with little energy but meanwhile the Tarentines, following their usual policy, had invited Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to their assistance. That monarch readily accepted the overture, and sent over his general Milo to occupy the citadel of Tarentum with 3000 men, while he himself followed in the winter. ( Zonar. 8.2 tambahan Pyrrh. 15 , 16 .)

It is usual to represent the Tarentines as at this period sunk in luxury and effeminacy, so that they were unable to defend themselves, and hence compelled to have recourse to the assistance of Pyrrhus. But there is certainly much exaggeration in this view. They were no doubt accustomed to rely much upon the arms of mercenaries, but so were all the more wealthy cities of Greece and it is certain that the Tarentines themselves (apart from their allies and mercenaries), furnished not only a considerable body of cavalry, but a large force or phalanx of heavy-armed infantry, called the Leucaspids, from their white shields, who are especially mentioned as serving under Pyrrhus at the battle of Asculum. (Dionys. xx. Fr. Didot. 1, 5.) It is unnecessary here to repeat the history of the campaigns of that, monarch. His first successes for a time saved Tarentum itself from the brunt of the war: but when he at length, after his final defeat by Curius, withdrew from Italy (B.C. 274), it was evident that the full weight of the Roman arms would fall upon Tarentum. Pyrrhus, indeed, left Milo with a garrison to defend the city, but the Tarentines themselves were divided into two parties, the one of which was disposed to submit to Rome, while the other applied for assistance to Carthage. A Carthaginian fleet was actually sent to Tarentum, but it arrived too late, for Milo had already capitulated and surrendered the citadel into the hands of the Roman consul Papirius, B.C. 272. ( Zonar. 8.6 Oro. 4.3 .)

From this time Tarentum continued subject to Rome. The inhabitants were indeed left in possession of their own laws and nominal independence, but the city was jealously watched and a Roman legion seems to have been commonly stationed there. (Pol. 2.24.) During the First Punic War the Tarentines are mentioned as furnishing ships to the Romans (Pol. 1.20): but with this exception we hear no more of it till the Second Punic War, when it became a military post of great importance. Hannibal was from an early period desirous to make himself master of the city, which, with its excellent port, would at once have secured his communications with Africa. It is evident also that there was a strong Carthaginian party in the city, who shortly after the battle of Cannae, opened negotiations with Hannibal, and renewed them upon a subsequent occasion ( hidup 22.61 , 24.13 ) but they were kept down by the presence of the Roman garrison, and it was not till B.C. 212 that Nico and Philemenus, two of the leaders of this party, found an opportunity to betray the city into his hands. ( hidup 25.8 - 10 Pol. 8.26--33.) Even then the Roman garrison still held the citadel and Hannibal having failed in his attempts to carry this fortress by assault, was compelled to resort to a blockade. He cut it off on [p. 2.1098] the land side by drawing a double line of fortifications across the isthmus, and made himself master of the sea by dragging a part of the fleet which was shut up within the inner port (or Mare Piccolo), across the narrowest part of the isthmus, and launching it again in the outer bay. (Pol. 8.34--36 hidup 25.11 .) This state of things continued for more than two years, during the whole of which time the Carthaginians continued masters of the city, while the Roman garrison still maintained possession of the citadel, and the besiegers were unable altogether to prevent them from receiving supplies from without, though on one occasion the Romans, having sent a considerable fleet under D. Quintius to attempt the relief of the place, this was met by the Tarentines, and after an obstinate conflict the Roman fleet was defeated and destroyed. ( hidup 25.15 , 26.39 , 27.3 .) At length in B.C. 209 Fabius determined if possible to wrest from Hannibal the possession of this important post and laid siege to Tarentum while the Carthaginian general was opposed to Marcellus. He himself encamped on the N. of the port, close to the entrance, so that he readily put himself in communication with M. Livius, the commander of the citadel. But while he was preparing his ships and engines for the assault, an accident threw in his way the opportunity of surprising the city, of which he made himself master with little difficulty. The Carthaginian garrison was put to the sword, as well as a large part of the inhabitants, and the whole city was given up to plunder. (Id. 27.12, 15, 16 tambahan Hebat. 21 - 23 .) Livy praises the magnanimity of Fabius in not carrying off the statues and other works of art in which Tarentum abounded ( hidup 27.16 tambahan Hebat. 23 ) but it is certain that he transferred from thence to Rome a celebrated statue of Hercules by Lysippus, which long continued to adorn the Capitol. ( Jerami. vi. p.278 Plin. Nat. 34.7. S. 18 .) The vast quantity of gold and silver which fell into the hands of the victors sufficiently bears out the accounts of the great wealth of the Tarentines. (Liv. l.c.

Tarentum had already suffered severely on its capture by Hannibal, and there can be no doubt that it sustained a still severer blow when it was retaken by Fabius. ( Jerami. vi. p.278 .) It was at first proposed to degrade it to a condition similar to that of Capua, but this was opposed by Fabius, and the decision was postponed till after the war. ( hidup 27.25 .) What the final resolution of the senate was, we know not but Tarentum is alluded to at a subsequent period, as still retaining its position of an allied city, “urbs foederata.” ( hidup 35.16 .) It is certain that it still remained the chief place in this part of Italy, and was the customary residence of the praetor or other magistrate who was sent to the S. of Italy. Thus we find in B.C. 185, L. Postumius sent thither to carry on investigations into the conspiracies that had arisen out of the Bacchanalian rites, as well as among the slave population. ( hidup 39.29 , 41 .) But it is nevertheless clear that it was (in common with the other Greek cities of this part of Italy) fallen into a state of great decay and hence, in B.C. 123, among the colonies sent out by C. Gracchus, was one to Tarentum, which appears to have assumed the title of Colonia Neptunia. ( Vel. 1.15 Plin. Nat. 3.11. S. 16 see Mommsen, in Berichte der Sächsischen Gesellschaft for 1849, pp. 49--51.) According to Strabo this colony became a flourishing one, and the city enjoyed considerable prosperity in his day. But it was greatly fallen from its former splendour, and only occupied the site of the ancient citadel, with a small part of the adjoining isthmus. ( Jerami. vi. p.278 .) It was, however, one of the few cities which still retained the Greek language and manners, in common with Neapolis and Rhegium. (Ib. P. 253.) The salubrity of its climate, as well as the fertility of its territory, and, above all, the importance of its port, preserved it from the complete decay into which so many of the cities of Magna Graecia fell under the Roman government. It is repeatedly mentioned during the civil wars between Octavian, Antony, and Sex. Pompeius as a naval station of importance and it was there that in B.C. 36 a fresh arrangement was come to between Octavian and Antony, which we find alluded to by Tacitus as the “Tarentinum foedus.” (Appian, Aplikasi. BC 2.40 , 5.50 , 80 , 84 , 93 --99 Tak. Ann. 1.10.

Even under the Empire Tarentum continued to be one of the chief seaports of Italy, though in some measure eclipsed by the growing importance of Brundusium. ( Tak. Ann. 14.12 , Hist. 2.83.) An additional colony of veterans was sent there under Nero, but with little effect, most of them having soon again dispersed. ( Tak. Ann. 14.27. ) No subsequent mention of Tarentum is found in history until after the fall of the Western Empire, but it then appears as a considerable town, and bears an important part in the Gothic Wars on account of its strength as a fortress, and the excellence of its port. (Procop. B. G. 3.23, 27, 37, 4.26, 34.) It was taken by Belisarius, but retaken by Totila in A.D. 549, and continued in the hands of the Goths till it was finally wrested from them by Narses. From that time it continued subject to the Byzantine Empire till A.D. 661, when it was taken by the Lombard Romoaldus, duke of Beneventum (P. Diac. 6.1) and afterwards fell successively into the hands of the Saracens and the Greek emperors. The latter did not finally lose their hold of it till it was taken by Robert Guiscard in 1063. It has ever since formed part of the kingdom of Naples. The modern city of Tarentum has a population of about 20,000 souls it is the see of an archbishop, and still ranks as the most important city in this part of Italy. But it is confined to the space occupied by the ancient citadel, the extremity of the peninsula or promontory between the two ports: this is now an island, the low isthmus which connected it with the mainland having been cut through by king Ferdinand I., for the purpose of strengthening its fortifications.

Scarcely any remains are now extant of the celebrated and opulent city of Tarentum. “Never (says Swinburne) was a place more completely swept off the face of the earth.” Some slight remains of an amphitheatre (of course of Roman date) are visible outside the walls of the modern city while within it the convent of the Celestines is built on the foundations of an ancient temple. Even the extent of the ancient city can be very imperfectly determined. A few slight vestiges of the ancient walls are, however, visible near an old church which bears the name of Sta Maria di Murveta, about 2 miles from the gates of the modern city and there is no doubt that the walls extended from thence, on the one side to the Mare Piccolo, on the other side to the outer sea. The general form of the city was thus triangular, having the citadel at the apex, which is now joined to the opposite shore by a [p. 2.1099] bridge of seven arches. This was already the case in Strabo's time, though no mention of it is found at the time of the siege by Hannibal.

The general form and arrangement of the city cannot be better described than they are by Strabo. He says: “While the whole of the rest of the Tarentine gulf is destitute of ports, there is here a very large and fair port, closed at the entrance by a large bridge, and not less than 100 stadia in circumference. [This is beneath the truth: the Mare Piccolo is more than 16 miles (128 stadia) in circuit.] On the side towards the inner recess of the port it forms an isthmus with the exterior sea, so that the city lies upon a peninsula and the neck of the isthmus is so low that ships can easily be drawn over the land from one side to the other. The whole city also lies low, but rises a little towards the citadel. The ancient wall comprises a circuit of great extent but now the greater part of the space adjoining the isthmus is deserted, and only that part still subsists which adjoins the mouth of the port, where also the Acropolis is situated. The portion still remaining is such as to make up a considerable city. It has a splendid Gymnasium, and a good-sized Agora, in which stands the bronze colossal statue of Jupiter, the largest in existence next to that at Rhodes. In the interval between the Agora and the mouth of the port is the Acropolis, which retains only a few remnants of the splendid monuments with which it was adorned in ancient times. For the greater part were either destroyed by the Carthaginians when they took the city, or carried off as booty by the Romans, when they made themselves masters of it by assault. Among these is the colossal bronze statue of Hercules in the Capitol, a work of Lysippus, which was dedicated there as an offering by Fabius Maximus, who took the city.” ( Jerami. vi. p.278 .)

In the absence of all extant remains there is very little to be added to the above description. But Polybius, in his detailed narrative of the capture of the city by Hannibal, supplies us with some local names and details. The principal gate on the E. side of the city, in the outer line of walls, seems to have been that called the Temenid Gate ( αἱ πύλαι Τημένιδαι, Pol. 8.30) outside of which was a mound or tumulus called the tomb of Hyacinthus, whose worship had obviously been brought from Sparta. A broad street called the Batheia, or Low Street, led apparently from this gate towards the interior of the city. This from its name may be conjectured to have lain close to the port and the water's edge, while another broad street led from thence to the Agora. (Ib. 31.) Another street called the Soteira ( Σωτεῖρα ) was apparently on the opposite side of the city from the Batheia, and must therefore have adjoined the outer sea. (Ib. 36.) Immediately adjoining the Agora was the Museum ( Μουσεῖον ), a public building which seems to have served for festivals and public banquets, rather than for any purposes connected with its name. (Ib. 27, 29.) There is nothing to indicate the site of the theatre, alluded to by Polybius on the same occasion, except that it was decidedly di dalam the city, which was not always the case. Strabo does not notice it, but it must have been a building of large size, so as to be adapted for the general assemblies of the people, which were generally held in it, as was the case also at Syracuse and in other Greek cities. This is particularly mentioned on several occasions it was there that the Roman ambassadors received the insult which finally led to the ruin of the city. ( Flor. 1.18.3 V. Max. 2.2.5 Appia, Samnit. 7.)

Livy inaccurately describes the citadel as standing on lofty cliffs ( “praealtis rupibus,” 25.11): the, peninsula on which it stood rises indeed (as observed by Strabo) a little above the rest of the city, and it. is composed of a rocky soil but the whole site is low, and no part of it rises to any considerable elevation. The hills also that surround the Mare Piccolo are of trifling height, and slope very gradually to its banks, as well as to the shore of the outer sea. There can be no doubt that the, port of Tarentum, properly so called, was the inlet now called the Mare Piccolo or “Little Sea,” but outside this the sea on the S. side of the city forms a bay or roadstead, which affords good shelter to shipping, being partially sheltered from the SW. by the two small islands of S. Pietro dan S. Paolo, apparently the same which were known in ancient times as the CHOERADES ( Thuc. 7.33 .)

Tarentum was celebrated in ancient times for the salubrity of its climate and the fertility of its territory. Its advantages in both respects are extolled by Horace in a well-known ode (Karm. 2.6), who says that its honey was equal to that of Hymettus, and its olives to those of Venafrum. Varro also praised its honey as the best in Italy (ap. Macrob. Sat. 2.12). Its oil and wines enjoyed a nearly equal reputation the choicest quality of the latter seems to have been that produced at Aulon (Hor. l.c. Martial, 13.125 Plin. Nat. 14.6. S. 8 ), a valley in the neighbourhood, on the slope of a hill still called Monte Melone [AULON]. But the choicest production of the neighbourhood of Tarentum was its wool, which appears to have enjoyed an acknowledged supremacy over that of all parts of Italy. ( Plin. Nat. 29.2. S. 9 Martial, l.c. Varr. R. R. 2.2.18 Jerami. vi. p.284 Col. 7.2.3 .) Nor was this owing solely to natural advantages, as we learn that the Tarentines bestowed the greatest care upon the preservation and improvement of the breed of sheep. ( Col. 7.4 .) Tarentum was noted likewise for its breed of horses, which supplied the famous Tarentine cavalry, which was long noted among the Greeks. Their territory abounded also in various kinds of fruits of the choicest quality, especially pears, figs, and chestnuts, and though not as fertile in corn as the western shores of the Tarentine gulf, was nevertheless well adapted to its cultivation. At the same time its shores produced abundance of shell-fish of all descriptions, which formed in ancient times a favourite article of diet. Even at the present day the inhabitants of Taranto subsist to a great extent upon the shell-fish produced in the Mare Piccolo in a profusion almost incredible. Its Pectens or scallops enjoyed a special reputation with the Roman epicures. (Hor. Sat. 2.4. 34.) But by far the most valuable production of this class was the Murex, which furnished the celebrated purple dye. The Tarentine purple was considered second only to the Tyrian, and for a long time was the most valuable known to the Romans. (Corn. Nep. ap. Plin. 9.39. s. 63.) Even in the time of Augustus it continued to enjoy a high reputation. ( Hor. ep. 2.1 , 207 .) So extensive were the manufactories of this dye at Tarentum that considerable mounds are still visible on the shore of the Mare Piccolo, composed wholly of broken shells of this species. (Swinburne's Travels, jilid Saya. P. 239.) [p. 2.1100]

The climate of Tarentum, though justly praised by Horace for its mildness, was generally reckoned soft and enervating, and was considered as in some degree the cause of the luxurious and effeminate habits ascribed to the inhabitants ( “molle Tarentum,” Hor. Sat. 2.4. 34 “imbelle Tarentum,” Id. ep. 1.7. 45.) It is probable that this charge, as in many other cases, was greatly exaggerated but there is no reason to doubt that the Tarentines, like almost all the other Greeks who became a manufacturing and commercial people, indulged in a degree of luxury far exceeding that of the ruder nations of Central Italy. The wealth and opulence to which they attained in the 4th century B.C. naturally tended to aggravate these evils, and the Tarentines are represented as at the time of the arrival of Pyrrhus enfeebled and degraded by luxurious indulgences, and devoted almost exclusively to the pursuit of pleasure. To such an excess was this carried that we are told the number of their annual festivals exceeded that of the days of the year. (Theopomp. ap. Athen. 4.166 Clearch. ap. Athen. 12.522 Jerami. vi. p.280 Aelian, Ael. VH 12.30 .) Juvenal alludes to their love of feasting and pleasure when he calls it “coronatum ac petulans madidumque Tarentum” (6.297). But it is certain, as already observed, that they were not incapable of war: they furnished a considerable body of troops to the army of Pyrrhus and in the sea-fight with the Roman fleet off the entrance of the harbour, during the Second Punic War, they displayed both courage and skill in naval combat. ( hidup 26.39 .) In the time of their greatest power, according to Strabo, they could send into the field an army of 30,000 foot and 3000 horse, besides a body of 1000 select cavalry called Hipparchs. ( Jerami. vi. p.280 .) The Tarentine light cavalry was indeed celebrated throughout Greece, so that they gave name to a particular description of cavalry, which are mentioned under the name of Tarentines ( Ταραντῖνοι ), in the armies of Alexander the Great and his successors and the appellation continued in use down to the period of the Roman Empire. (Arrian, Anab. Indo. Tact. 4 Pol. 4.77, 11.12 hidup 35.28 Aelian, Tact. 2. p. 14 Suidas, s. v. Ταραντῖνοι. ) It is probable, however, that these may have been always recruited in great part among the neighbouring Messapians and Sallentines, who also excelled as light horsemen.

With their habits of luxury the Tarentines undoubtedly combined the refinements of the arts usually associated with it, and were diligent cultivators of the fine arts. The great variety and beauty of their coins is, even at the present day, a sufficient proof of this, while the extraordinary numbers of them which are still found in the S. of Italy attest the wealth of the city. Ancient writers also speak of the numbers of pictures, statues, and other works of art with which the city was adorned, and of which. a considerable number were transported to Rome. ( Flor. 1.18 Jerami. vi. p.278 hidup 27.16 .) Among these the most remarkable were the colossal statue of Jupiter, mentioned by Strabo (l.c.), and which was apparently still standing in the Agora in his time the bronze statue of Hercules by Lysippus already noticed and a statue of Victory, which was also carried to Rome, where it became one of the chief ornaments of the Curia Julia. ( D. C. 51.22 .) Nor were the Tarentines deficient in the cultivation of literature. In addition to Archytas, the Pythagorean philosopher, celebrated for his mathematical attainments and discoveries, who long held at Tarentum a place somewhat similar to that of Pericles at Athens ( D. L. 8.4 Suid. S. v. Ἀρχύτας Athen. 12.545 ), Aristoxenus, the celebrated musician and disciple of Aristotle, was a native of Tarentum as well as Rhinthon, the dramatic poet, who became the founder of a new species of burlesque drama which was subsequently cultivated by Sopater and other authors. (Suid. s. v. Ρίνθων. ) It was from Tarentum also that the Romans received the first rudiments of the regular drama, Livius Andronicus, their earliest dramatic poet, having been a Greek of Tarentum, who was taken prisoner when the city fell into their hands. ( Cic. kasar. 18

Polybius tells us that Tarentum retained many traces of its Lacedaemonian origin in local names and customs, which still subsisted in his day. Such was the tomb of Hyacinthus already mentioned (Pol. 8.30): the river Galaesus also was called by them the Eurotas (Ib. 35), though the native name ultimately prevailed. Another custom which he notices as peculiar was that of burying their dead within the walls of the city, so that a considerable space within the walls was occupied by a necropolis. (Ib. 30.) This custom he ascribes to an oracle, but it may have arisen (as was the case at Agrigentum and Syracuse) from the increase of the city having led to the original necropolis being inclosed within the walls.

The name of Tarentum (Taras) was supposed to be derived from a river of the name of TARAS ( Τάρας ), which is noticed by several ancient writers. ( Steph. B. sub suara Τάρας Jeda. 10.10.8 .) This is commonly identified with a deep, but sluggish, stream, which flows into the sea about 4 miles W. of the entrance of the harbour of Tarentum, and is still called Tara, though corrupted by the peasantry into Fiume di Terra. (Romanelli, vol. i. p. 281 Swinburne, vol. i. p. 271.) The more celebrated stream of the GALAESUS flowed into the Mare Piccola or harbour of Tarentum on its N. shore: it is commonly identified with the small stream called Le Citrezze, an old church near which still retains the name of Sta Maria di Galeso. [GALAESUS] Another locality in the immediate neighbourhood of Tarentum, the name of which is associated with that of the city by Horace, is AULON a hill or ridge celebrated for the excellence of its wines. This is identified by local topographers, though on very slight grounds, with a sloping ridge on the seashore about 8 miles SE. of Tarentum, a part of which bears the name of Monte Melone, supposed to be a corruption of Aulone [AULON]. A more obscure name, which is repeatedly mentioned in connection with Tarentum, is that of SATURIUM ( Σατύριον ). From the introduction of this name in the oracle alleged to have been given to Phalanthus ( Jerami. vi. p.279 ), it seems probable that it was an old native name, but it is not clear that there ever was a town or even village of the name. It is more probable that it was that of a tract or district in the neighbourhood of Tarentum. Stephanus of Byzantium distinctly calls it χώρα πλήσιον Τάραντος (s. v. Σατύριον ) and the authority of Servius, who calls it a kota (civitas) near Tarentum, is not worth much in comparison. There was certainly no kota of the name in historical times. Virgil applies the epithet “Saturium” (as an adjective) to Tarentum itself (Geory. 2.197 Serv. ad loc.: many commentators, however, consider “saturi” from “satur” [p. 2.1101] to be the true reading), and Hrace speaks of “Satureianus cabellus” as equivalent to Tarentine. ( Sat. i. 6. 59.) The memory of the locality is preserved by a watch-tower on the coast, about seven miles SE. of Tarentum, which is still called Torre di Saturo (Romanelli, vol. i. p. 294 Zannoni Carta del Regno di Napoli).

(Concerning the history and ancient institutions of Tarentum, see Heyne, Opuscula, vol. ii. pp. 217--232 and Lorentz, de Civitate Veterum Tarentinorum, 4to. Lips. 1833. The present state and localities are described by Swinburne, vol. i. pp. 225--270 Keppel Craven, Southern Tour, pp. 174--190 and Romandelli, vol. Saya. pp. 282--289 but from the absence of existing remains, the antiquities of Tarentum have scarcely received as much attention as they deserve.)


Tarentum - History

After St. Clement’s closed in 2006, one of Follieri’s numerous corporations — CV12 216 W. Ninth Avenue LLC — bought the property in January 2007.

Men from the Vatican

According to the U.S. Attorney’s Office, from June 2005 through June 2007, Follieri ran a fraudulent real estate investment scheme, claiming that he had close connections with the Vatican — enabling him to purchase Catholic church properties at prices well below their market value.

He allegedly told people he formally was appointed by the Vatican to manage its financial affairs. Investigators say he raised investment capital for an “Italian office” that didn’t exist, including $800,000 on bogus “engineering reports” and other falsified business expenses.

Federal prosecutors say they have ample evidence that he spent as much as $6 million from his investors on a jet-setting lifestyle for himself, a girlfriend and others. The girlfriend is said to be actress Anne Hathaway, who dated Follieri for four years. Tabloid reports say the pair split last week.

Follieri is charged with various counts of conspiracy, wire fraud and money laundering. If he receives the maximum sentence, Follieri would spend life in prison and pay millions of dollars in fines.

A federal district court judge set Follieri’s bail at $21 million — $16 million must be in cash or property. Follieri also must relinquish his passport and get five other people to co-sign, assuming responsibility if he tries to escape. At press time, he was still in federal custody.

Undervalued

When Follieri’s company bought the former St. Clement’s property from the Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh in January 2007, it was valued at $407, 000 — $337,000 for the building and $70,000 for the 23,000 square feet of adjoining land. Follieri, though, paid only $252,000 for it, according to Allegheny County records.

Follieri’s company also bought St. Patrick’s in Alpsville, Allegheny County, said the Rev. Ron Lengwin, diocesan spokesman.

“We were prepared to sell them (other unused properties), but it never got that far,” Lengwin said.

Follieri’s representatives did not tell diocesan officials they had ties to the Vatican, said Lengwin.

“Any church official could tell who was from the Vatican and who was not,” he said.

The property was sold to Follieri at the reduced price because “when you sell a piece of property that no one else wants, you have to sell it to the person who wants to buy it for what they’re willing to pay,” Lengwin said.

By the end of the year, the property was back on the market for $425,000.

The marketing agent trying to sell it, James Kelly of Grubb & Ellis in Pittsburgh, said he could not comment, as part of his contract with Follieri’s company.

Beberapa panggilan ke switchboard utama Grup Follieri diteruskan oleh resepsionis ke nomor yang tidak aktif.

Manajer Tarentum Borough, Bill Rossey mengatakan dia telah mendengar tentang Follieri tetapi tidak tahu bahwa dia memiliki bekas properti St. Clement dan tidak mendengar apa pun tentang apa yang mungkin terjadi padanya sekarang.

Menurut staf di U.S. Marshals’ Department of Asset Forfeiture, jika Follieri dihukum karena mendapatkan asetnya secara curang atau menggunakan aset yang diperoleh secara sah untuk melakukan kejahatan, aset tersebut dapat disita dan dijual untuk membayar ganti rugi kepada orang yang ditipunya. Pilihan lain termasuk kesepakatan pembelaan untuk menjual properti dan melikuidasi aset untuk membayar restitusi atau hukuman lainnya.

Pada perkiraan terakhir, bangunan tersebut membutuhkan sekitar $400.000 dalam pekerjaan sebelum dapat digunakan lagi, termasuk atap dan pembersihan jamur, kata sejarawan Katolik setempat Charles “Skip” Culleiton dari New Kensington.

Mantan umat paroki dan umat Katolik setempat mungkin ingin melihat bangunan itu digunakan untuk menyediakan layanan sosial atau untuk tujuan lain yang dapat meningkatkan komunitas, yang awalnya dijanjikan oleh perusahaan Follieri, kata Culleiton.

“Itu mungkin akan membuat (umat paroki, Katolik) mereka merasa lebih baik tentang semuanya,” kata Culleiton.


Tonton videonya: A Nonviolent Caesar 3 Speedrun - Mission 3b Tarentum HD 2m26s (Agustus 2022).