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Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall


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Thurgood Marshall lahir di Baltimore, Maryland, pada tanggal 2 Juli 1908. Ayahnya, William Marshall, memastikan bahwa putranya mendapatkan apresiasi untuk Konstitusi (teks) sejak usia muda.

Marshall menyelesaikan sekolah menengah atas pada tahun 1925 dan lulus dengan pujian dari Universitas Lincoln di Chester, Pennsylvania, pada tahun 1930. Tepat sebelum kelulusannya, ia menikah dengan Vivian “Buster” Burey. Setelah 25 tahun menikah, dia meninggal karena kanker pada tahun 1955. Dia menikah lagi kemudian.

Setelah lulus pada tahun 1930, Thurgood Marshall mendaftar ke Fakultas Hukum Universitas Maryland. Dia tidak diterima karena dia berkulit hitam, dan itu menggerakkan peristiwa masa depannya. Pada tahun yang sama, Marshall diterima di Sekolah Hukum Universitas Howard. Dekan baru yang dinamis, Charles Hamilton Houston, memastikan bahwa semua mahasiswa memiliki keinginan untuk menerapkan prinsip-prinsip Konstitusi (narasi) kepada seluruh warga Amerika.

Pada tahun 1933, Marshall meninggalkan Howard dengan gelar sarjana hukum dan memulai praktik di Baltimore. Tahun berikutnya, ia bertemu dengan Asosiasi Nasional untuk Kemajuan Orang Kulit Berwarna (NAACP) dan menjadi anggota aktif.

Dari tahun 1934 hingga 1961, NAACP memintanya untuk melakukan perjalanan ke seluruh Amerika Serikat untuk mewakili berbagai jenis kasus pengadilan. Sebagian besar klien memiliki perselisihan yang melibatkan pertanyaan tentang keadilan rasial, yang berkisar dari kejahatan umum hingga advokasi banding, yang mengangkat masalah hukum konstitusional yang paling rumit.

Dengan bantuan Charles Houston, Thurgood Marshall memenangkan kasus hak-hak sipil besar pertamanya, Murray v. Pearson, di Mahkamah Agung Maryland pada tahun 1935. Tahun berikutnya ia menjadi asisten penasihat khusus untuk NAACP di New York. Dia kemudian menjabat sebagai kepala penasihat untuk NAACP 1938-1961. Dia memimpin litigasi yang membongkar dasar-dasar hukum segregasi Jim Crow.

Mulai tahun 1940, Marshall memenangkan 29 dari 32 kasus Mahkamah Agung AS. Salah satu kasus besar pertama adalah Smith vs. Allwrite pada tahun 1944, yang menggulingkan "Primer Putih" Selatan. Pratama Putih adalah praktik mengecualikan orang Afrika-Amerika dari Partai Demokrat. Itu paling umum di negara bagian di mana partai itu mengendalikan pemerintah negara bagian.

Kemenangan sukses berikutnya adalah Shelley v. Kraemer pada tahun 1948. Kasus itu melibatkan Mahkamah Agung yang menjatuhkan legalitas perjanjian pembatasan rasial dan memaksa pengadilan negara bagian untuk mengakhiri perjanjian real estat yang membatasi rasial.

Pada tahun 1950, Thurgood Marshall memenangkan dua kasus lagi, Sweatt vs. Pelukis dan McLaurin vs. Bupati Negara Bagian Oklahoma, yang merupakan kasus integrasi lulusan-sekolah. Tahun berikutnya ia pergi ke Korea Selatan dan Jepang untuk menyelidiki tuduhan rasisme di angkatan bersenjata Amerika Serikat. Dia menemukan bahwa militer melakukan “pemisahan kaku” sebagai bagian dari kehidupan sehari-hari, meskipun faktanya Presiden Harry S. Truman telah melakukan desegregasi angkatan bersenjata pada tahun 1947.

Marshall melanjutkan untuk mencapai kemenangan penting dengan kasus Brown vs. Dewan Pendidikan Topeka (1954). Putusan Mahkamah Agung itu meruntuhkan dasar hukum segregasi di Amerika. Itu juga membuat segregasi rasial yang diberlakukan negara di sekolah umum menjadi tidak valid.

Pada tahun 1961, Thurgood Marshall adalah orang Afrika-Amerika pertama yang diangkat ke Pengadilan Banding Amerika Serikat. Dia membela demonstran hak-hak sipil dengan memenangkan kasus Circuit Court, Garner vs. Louisiana.

Setelah berbagai kemenangan, Thurgood Marshall dinominasikan ke Pengadilan Banding Kedua oleh Presiden John F. Kennedy pada tahun 1961. Dalam kapasitas itu, ia mengeluarkan 112 putusan. Semua putusan yang ditetapkan oleh Marshall kemudian dikuatkan oleh Mahkamah Agung. Pada tahun 1965, ia diangkat menjadi Jaksa Agung Amerika Serikat oleh Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson. Sementara di posisi ini, di mana dia membela pemerintah, dia memenangkan 14 dari 19 kasus antara tahun 1965 dan 1967.

Pada tahun 1967, Thurgood Thurgood Marshall menjadi orang Afrika-Amerika pertama yang menjadi hakim asosiasi di Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat. Dia dinominasikan oleh Presiden Johnson, yang menyatakan bahwa itu adalah "hal yang benar untuk dilakukan, waktu yang tepat untuk melakukannya, orang yang tepat dan tempat yang tepat."

Marshall ingin menegakkan kebijakan gender dan tindakan rasial yang positif dalam setiap kasus di mana mereka ditantang. Selama 24 tahun, ia menjadi liberal vokal di pengadilan yang didominasi oleh kaum konservatif. Dia mendesak pemerintah untuk membantu dengan manfaat penting bagi masyarakat, termasuk pendidikan, layanan hukum, dan akses ke pengadilan.

Dia ingin manfaat itu tersedia untuk semua orang, terlepas dari kemampuan mereka untuk membelinya. Dia berhasil membuat perlindungan baru di bawah hukum untuk wanita, anak-anak, tunawisma, dan tahanan.

Catatan pemungutan suara progresif yang gigih dari Thurgood Marshall termasuk dukungan tajam untuk perlindungan Konstitusional terhadap hak-hak individu, khususnya hak-hak tersangka kriminal versus pemerintah. Hakim William Brennan adalah konfederasi Marshall yang paling dapat diandalkan, yang diduga memilih bersamanya menentang hukuman mati. Dukungan Marshall terhadap Tindakan Afirmatif mendorong perbedaan pendapatnya yang kuat dalam Bupati Universitas California vs. Bakke (1978), di mana sekolah kedokteran Universitas California Davis, dengan menetapkan kuota minoritas 16 persen, mendiskriminasi pelamar kulit putih, Allan Bakke. Karena penunjukan oleh Presiden Nixon dan Reagan mengubah sudut pandang pengadilan, Marshall lebih sering menjadi minoritas pemilih.

Mengutip kesehatan yang buruk, Thurgood Marshall mengundurkan diri dari pengadilan pada tahun 1991. Di masa pensiun, dia adalah seorang kritikus vokal dari pengadilan. Marshall meninggal pada 24 Januari 1993, pada usia 84.


Thurgood Marshall: Kehidupan dalam Sejarah Amerika

Thurgood Marshall paling dikenang sebagai Hakim Mahkamah Agung Afrika-Amerika pertama. Tetapi hanya mengingatnya dengan cara seperti itu berarti membuatnya tidak adil. Dia memiliki karir yang luar biasa dan signifikan sebelum diangkat ke Mahkamah Agung. Dia bekerja sebagai pengacara untuk NAACP selama beberapa dekade. Selama waktu itu, ia memperoleh gelar "Mr. Hak Sipil” atas upayanya memerangi hukum dan menangani kasus pengadilan yang merugikan orang Afrika-Amerika. Mengapa Marshall memutuskan untuk mengambil tugas ini dan pengaruhnya terhadap masyarakat Amerika selama karirnya adalah penting untuk diketahui dan dihargai oleh setiap orang Amerika.

Dr. Spencer R. Crew adalah Direktur Sementara Museum Nasional Sejarah dan Budaya Afrika-Amerika. Dia telah bekerja di institusi sejarah publik selama lebih dari dua puluh lima tahun, pernah menjabat sebagai presiden National Underground Railroad Freedom Center selama enam tahun dan bekerja di National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution selama dua puluh tahun. Dr. Crew adalah penulis beberapa buku, termasuk Lapangan ke Pabrik: Migrasi Afro-Amerika 1915–1940 Kehidupan Hitam di Kota-Kota Sekunder: Analisis Perbandingan Komunitas Hitam Camden dan Elizabeth, N.J., 1860–1920 dan Thurgood Marshall: Kehidupan dalam Sejarah Amerika.

Menjadi anggota! Nikmati manfaat menarik dan jelajahi pameran baru sepanjang tahun.


Kapan Thurgood Marshall Lahir?

Marshall lahir pada 2 Juli 1908, di Baltimore, Maryland dari pasangan William Marshall, kuli kereta api, yang kemudian bekerja sebagai staf Gibson Island Club, sebuah country club khusus kulit putih dan Norma Williams, seorang guru sekolah. Salah satu kakek buyutnya telah dibawa sebagai budak dari Kongo ke Maryland di mana dia akhirnya dibebaskan. Marshall lulus dari Universitas Lincoln pada tahun 1930 dan mendaftar ke Fakultas Hukum Universitas Maryland – ia ditolak masuk karena sekolah tersebut masih terpisah pada waktu itu. Jadi Marshall diterima di Sekolah Hukum Universitas Howard di mana dia lulus pertama di kelasnya dan bertemu dengan mentornya, Charles Hamilton Huston, yang dengannya dia menikmati persahabatan seumur hidup. Dalam sebuah wawancara yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1992 di American Bar Association Journal, Marshall menulis bahwa "Charlie Houston bersikeras bahwa kita menjadi insinyur sosial daripada pengacara," sebuah mantra yang dia junjung tinggi dan dipersonifikasikan.


Panggilan Sejarah: LBJ dan Thurgood Marshall di Telepon

Ketika Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson memanggil Thurgood Marshall untuk menawarinya posisi Jaksa Agung Amerika Serikat, Johnson menegaskan kembali komitmennya untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang dimulai Abraham Lincoln dengan "menjalankan semua jalan" pada hak-hak sipil, tetapi dia memperingatkan Marshall bahwa penunjukan itu akan menyebabkan Senat memeriksanya dengan "sisir gigi yang bagus." Dalam panggilan telepon Juli 1965, Johnson berbicara tentang berbagai masalah termasuk citra Amerika Serikat di luar negeri, keadaan Gerakan Hak Sipil, pentingnya perwakilan "Negro" dalam sistem peradilan, dan akhirnya, sikapnya yang terselubung. , tujuan akhir menempatkan Marshall di Mahkamah Agung. Sebuah momen bersejarah yang monumental, seruan LBJ kepada Marshall menggerakkan serangkaian peristiwa yang akan berujung pada Marshall menjadi Jaksa Agung Afrika-Amerika pertama dan Hakim Agung Mahkamah Agung Afrika-Amerika pertama di Amerika Serikat.

Thurgood Marshall berbicara dengan Presiden Johnson di Gedung Putih (melalui Wikimedia Commons).

Thurgood Marshall menjadi terkenal di tahun 1940-an karena karyanya dengan NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, yang dibuat oleh Marshall sebagai badan hukum NAACP, yang dirancang untuk menyerang diskriminasi dan segregasi. Mengumpulkan sejumlah besar kemenangan hukum seperti di Smith v. Baiklah (1944), Shelby v. Kraemer (1948), dan yang paling terkenal Brown v. Dewan Pendidikan Topeka (1954), Marshall kemudian dikenal sebagai “Mr. Hak-hak sipil." Pada saat panggilan Johnson, Marshall sedang bertugas di Pengadilan Banding AS untuk Sirkuit Kedua, yang ditunjuk pada tahun 1961. Namun, perhatian Johnson tidak hanya terfokus pada Gerakan Hak Sipil, tetapi juga perang yang berkembang di Vietnam . Sepanjang Juni dan Juli 1965, Johnson terpaksa mempertimbangkan untuk meningkatkan jumlah pasukan darat yang aktif dan mendapati dirinya terus-menerus berselisih dengan para penasihatnya dan publik Amerika. Ditambah dengan pengunduran diri Duta Besar AS untuk Vietnam Selatan, Johnson, yang sering tidak ingin fokus pada urusan luar negeri, mendapati dirinya menghadapi serangkaian kerugian politik dan militer. Johnson berharap untuk memfokuskan idealisme moral dan keyakinan agamanya pada perjuangan hak-hak sipil, dan ketika diberitahu bahwa dia harus tidak menekankan hak-hak sipil, Johnson berkomentar, “untuk apa presiden itu?”

Rekaman percakapan telepon antara LBJ dan Thurgood Marshall ini termasuk dalam kumpulan percakapan telepon Gedung Putih LBJ yang dibuat di Dictaphone Dictabelt Records antara November 1963 dan November 1969. Johnson awalnya mulai merekam percakapan dan pidato saat berada di Senat dan melanjutkan praktik itu sebagai Presiden . Rekaman pertemuan presiden dan panggilan telepon pertama kali dimulai oleh Franklin Delano Roosevelt yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan konsistensi dalam pernyataan dan pesan publik Gedung Putih, sementara juga memiliki pilihan untuk bukti konklusif dalam kasus klaim palsu yang dibuat tentang pemerintahan.

Pertemuan Presiden Johnson dengan Dr. King dan para pemimpin Gerakan Hak Sipil lainnya (melalui Wikimedia Commons).

Rekaman itu menjelaskan ketegangan yang dirasakan Johnson antara moralitas Gerakan Hak Sipil dan kepraktisan iklim politik yang ia alami selama masa kepresidenannya. Tindakan Johnson selama Gerakan Hak Sipil telah menjadi subjek studi intensif oleh para sejarawan, yang berusaha memahami dari mana motivasi keterlibatan Johnson berasal, dan seberapa kuat prinsip-prinsip moral dan agama membimbingnya dibandingkan dengan realitas politik. Randall B. Woods berargumen bahwa idealisme moral dan etika Johnson mendorong tindakan di depan rumah dan di depan perang, sementara Sylvia Ellis berpendapat bahwa pragmatisme dan realisme mengatur kebijakan rasial dan luar negeri Johnson.[1] Johnson memulai panggilan telepon ke Marshall dengan desahan putus asa yang menyatakan bahwa dia memiliki "masalah yang sangat besar," yang dia harap Marshall akan membantunya. Nada suaranya tampak lelah dan pilihannya untuk memandang penunjukan sebagai masalah, menunjukkan pragmatisme dan pengakuannya bahwa iklim politik membuat pencalonan Marshall sangat menantang. Sepanjang panggilan, Johnson tidak pernah menyebut posisi itu sebagai kehormatan besar, melainkan kesempatan untuk mengangkat karakter dan citra Amerika Serikat di luar negeri, (ia bahkan memberi tahu Marshall bahwa ia "sangat rugi" dengan mengambil posisi itu). Dia tampaknya melihat pencalonan Marshall sebagai tugas serta pilihan politik yang diperhitungkan dari seorang "Negro" yang juga "pengacara yang sangat baik." Pengaruh pragmatis berlangsung, dan perhitungan politik Johnson terus terlihat, saat ia mengungkapkan kesulitan dengan mendorong pencalonan Marshall melalui Kongres, dan tidak ingin "dipotong dari belakang."

Thurgood Marshall pada tahun 1967 (melalui Wikimedia Commons).

Komentar Johnson, bagaimanapun, dapat dilihat melalui lensa moralitas, bukan pragmatisme. Pernyataannya tentang Marshall sebagai simbol bagi “rakyat dunia” dapat mencerminkan pandangannya bahwa Marshall akan menjadi mercusuar penting kesetaraan di seluruh dunia. Selain itu, kekagumannya yang jelas terhadap kemampuan politik Marshall dan keyakinannya yang kuat untuk mendukungnya terlepas dari apa yang dikatakan orang lain, dapat menunjukkan komitmen Johnson untuk membuat keputusan yang mencerminkan kompas moralnya sendiri. Johnson mengatakan bahwa dia “tidak membutuhkan suara” dan bahwa dia tidak melakukan ini untuk mendapatkan suara, melainkan karena dia ingin “keadilan ditegakkan.” Rekaman ini tidak menyelesaikan perdebatan tentang ambiguitas Johnson, melainkan melanjutkannya, dengan pernyataan Johnson mendukung pragmatisme dan moralitas, tergantung pada bagaimana seseorang mendengar rekaman tersebut.

Apa yang tersisa tak terkatakan sama menariknya. Marshall tidak banyak bicara selama percakapan. Ketika Johnson menggambarkan Marshall sebagai simbol untuk “representasi negro”, Marshall tidak terlalu menanggapi. Pertanyaan tentang peran Marshall sebagai "manusia ras", yang dengan jelas mendefinisikan identitasnya sebagai "kulit hitam" dan berusaha membawa kemajuan orang kulit hitam, telah menjadi bahan perdebatan di antara sejarawan dan sarjana hukum yang tidak diselesaikan dengan ini. percakapan.[2] Namun panggilan telepon ini menawarkan potret perjuangan antara kepraktisan dan moralitas yang akan mendominasi karir baik Thurgood Marshall maupun Lyndon Johnson.


Rekaman audio dari panggilan telepon ini dapat ditemukan di Youtube. Dokumen asli disimpan di Perpustakaan LBJ: Rekaman Percakapan Telepon antara Lyndon B. Johnson dan Thurgood Marshall, 7 Juli 1965, 13:30, Kutipan #8307, Rekaman Percakapan Telepon – Seri Gedung Putih, Rekaman dan Transkrip Percakapan dan Rapat.

Sumber lain:
Wil Haygood, Showdown: Thurgood Marshall dan Nominasi Mahkamah Agung yang Mengubah Amerika (2015).
David Kaiser, Tragedi Amerika: Kennedy, Johnson, dan Asal Usul Perang Vietnam (2000).
Abe Fortas, “Potret Seorang Teman,” dalam Kenneth W. Thompson, ed., Kepresidenan Johnson: Dua Puluh Perspektif Intim Lyndon B. Johnson (1986).

[1] Randall B. Woods “Politik Idealisme: Lyndon Johnson, Hak Sipil, dan Vietnam,” Sejarah Diplomatik Volume 31, Edisi 1, 2007. Sylvia Ellis, Pragmatis Kebebasan: Lyndon Johnson dan Hak Sipil, (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2013).

[2] Sheryll D. Cashin “Justice Thurgood Marshall: Yurisprudensi yang Melampaui Ras Manusia,” Jurnal Hukum Howard, Jil. 52, No. 3, 2009.


Juga oleh Augusta Dell’Omo di Not Even Past:
Trauma dan Pemulihan, oleh Judith Herman (1992).

Anda Mungkin Juga Menyukai:
Jennifer Eckel mengulas produksi HBO Selamat (2011).
Not Even Past Contributor memberikan gambaran tentang sejarah Gerakan Hak Sipil.


Prestasi Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall pada tahun 1957

Sebelum diangkat ke posisi Associate Justice di Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat, Thurgood Marshall membuat gelombang besar sebagai aktivis/pengacara hak-hak sipil. Marshall terkenal berdebat banyak kasus di hadapan Mahkamah Agung AS. Yang paling terkenal dari kasus itu adalah Brown v. Dewan Pendidikan pada tahun 1940.

Thurgood Marshall menjabat di bangku pengadilan tertinggi negara kita (Mahkamah Agung AS) dari Oktober 1967 hingga Oktober 1991. Sebagai hakim di pengadilan, Hakim Marshall adalah pendukung vokal kesetaraan ras, individu, perempuan dan hak-hak sipil. Dia memegang tempat yang tak terlupakan di benak kolektif orang Amerika karena dia mengabdikan sebagian besar hidupnya membela hak dan kebebasan minoritas di Amerika Serikat.

Artikel di bawah ini menangkap 10 pencapaian utama Thurgood Marshall:

Memprotes keras terhadap undang-undang segregasi rasial

Marshall tumbuh di era ketika undang-undang segregasi rasial (yaitu Jim Crow) di Amerika Serikat marak. Sejak usia dini, ia selalu merangkul peluang yang memungkinkannya untuk melawan undang-undang segregasi rasial menggunakan cara hukum. Misalnya, ia memamerkan ini di tahun keduanya ketika ia memprotes undang-undang segregasi rasial di fasilitas umum, terutama di bioskop.

Mengembangkan hubungan kerja yang kuat dengan NAACP

Bertekad untuk terus mengejar kesetaraan ras dan hukum transformasi sosial, Marshall mengarahkan pandangannya untuk menciptakan praktik hukum swasta yang sukses setelah lulus dari Howard University of Law School. Setelah mendirikan firma hukumnya, Marshall melanjutkan untuk membentuk aliansi yang kuat dengan Asosiasi Nasional untuk Kemajuan Orang Kulit berwarna (NAACP).

Memenangkan Murray v. Pearson kasus tahun 1936

Dalam beberapa kesempatan ia menjabat sebagai penasihat hukum untuk NAACP. Pada tahun 1934, misalnya, Marshall menawarkan jasa hukumnya untuk Murray v. Pearson kasus. Kasus ini membuat Marshall berargumen bahwa Fakultas Hukum Universitas Maryland tidak konstitusional untuk menggunakan undang-undang segregasi untuk menolak masuk ke Donald Gaines Murray - seorang mahasiswa kulit hitam dari Amherst College. Dia berargumen bahwa praktik semacam itu merupakan pelanggaran berat terhadap doktrin "terpisah tetapi setara" dari kasus tersebut Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Marshall menang dalam kasus itu dengan membuat argumen yang sangat logis di hadapan Pengadilan Banding Maryland.

Muncul sebagai pemenang dalam kasus Mahkamah Agung Chambers v. Florida (1940)

Pada tahun 1940, Marshall, 32 tahun saat itu, berargumen di hadapan Mahkamah Agung dalam kasus penting – Chambers v. Florida, 309 AS 227 (1940). Kasus ini melibatkan analisis bagaimana penggunaan tekanan oleh polisi dan interogator dalam beberapa cara melanggar hal inie Proses Karena ayat.

Thurgood mewakili empat pria kulit hitam (termasuk Mr. Chambers) yang dihukum karena membunuh seorang pria kulit putih di Florida. Marshall berargumen bahwa negara bagian Florida menahan para terdakwa tanpa memberi mereka penasihat hukum. Disebutkan juga bahwa interogator membajak dalam sesi interogasi tanpa memberi tahu para terdakwa tentang hak mereka untuk tetap diam, yang mengakibatkan para terdakwa mengakui pembunuhan itu. Para terdakwa kemudian divonis dan dijatuhi hukuman mati.

Setelah membuat argumen yang kuat di hadapan Mahkamah Agung, Marshall dapat memperoleh keputusan yang menguntungkan para terdakwa. Keyakinan para terdakwa sebelumnya dibatalkan oleh pengadilan karena petugas polisi melanggar hukum dengan tidak mengikuti proses hukum karena mereka memaksa para terdakwa untuk memberikan pengakuan mereka.

Mendirikan Dana Pendidikan dan Pertahanan Hukum NAACP

Mengikuti argumennya yang terkenal di hadapan Mahkamah Agung dalam kasus ini Chambers v. Florida, 309 U.S. 227 (1940), Thurgood Marshall dan rekan-rekannya mendirikan NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF). Dana tersebut ditujukan untuk mendorong perubahan struktural dan sosial di masyarakat. Marshall berharap bahwa perubahan tersebut akan mengarah pada penghapusan kesenjangan rasial, yang pada gilirannya akan menciptakan lingkungan yang bebas dari diskriminasi rasial. Hingga hari ini, LDF yang saat ini bermarkas di New York City, terus menangani beberapa kasus yang melibatkan minoritas di Amerika Serikat dan di seluruh dunia.

Memenangkan kasus Brown v. Dewan Pendidikan Topeka, 347 AS 483 (1954)

Marshall sangat terlibat selama Brown v. Dewan Pendidikan Topeka kasus tahun 1954. Pada akhirnya, Mahkamah Agung mengeluarkan putusan pada tanggal 17 Mei 1954, yang membuat pemisahan rasial di sekolah umum terus berlanjut adalah inkonstitusional. Itu adalah kasus besar yang menyebabkan sejumlah besar ketegangan rasial di Amerika Serikat. Marshall adalah inti dari semuanya dari awal hingga akhir.

Dengan hormat atas argumennya, pengadilan sampai pada keputusan bulat (9-0) dan menyatakan bahwa segregasi di sekolah umum, terlepas dari apakah fasilitasnya sama di sekolah segregasi, secara inheren menghasilkan kualitas yang tidak setara. Marshall mampu membuktikan kepada pengadilan bahwa segregasi di sekolah umum melanggar Klausul Perlindungan Setara yang dijamin oleh Amandemen Keempat Belas Konstitusi AS.

Putusan itu dalam banyak hal mengesampingkan putusan Mahkamah Agung di Plessy v. Fergusson (1896) yang menganut doktrin “separate but equal”.

Thurgood Marshall menang Smith v. Baiklah, 339 AS 649 (1944)

Kasus ini berkaitan dengan hak pilih bagi orang kulit hitam. Setelah perdebatan panjang di hadapan Mahkamah Agung, Marshall berhasil meyakinkan pengadilan untuk membatalkan undang-undang negara bagian Texas yang mengizinkan partai politik untuk mengadopsi undang-undang rasial yang merugikan orang kulit hitam. Mahkamah Agung memutuskan bahwa undang-undang Texas tidak konstitusional karena mendorong diskriminasi dan mengecualikan orang kulit hitam dan minoritas lainnya dari pemungutan suara di pemilihan pendahuluan. Oleh karena itu, partai politik tidak diizinkan untuk menetapkan aturan mereka sendiri sehubungan dengan pemilihan umum.

Orang Afrika-Amerika pertama yang menjadi Jaksa Agung Amerika Serikat

Sebagai hasil dari penampilan dan argumennya yang luar biasa di hadapan Mahkamah Agung AS, status Marshall di antara komunitas Afrika-Amerika dan AS pada umumnya sangat tinggi. Kenaikannya yang meroket menarik perhatian Presiden John F. Kennedy dan pada tahun 1961, Marshall dinominasikan oleh JFK ke Pengadilan Banding AS untuk Sirkuit Kedua. Pencalonannya dengan mudah disetujui oleh Senat.

Setelah sekitar empat tahun bertugas di pengadilan, Marshall membuat sejarah dengan menjadi orang Afrika-Amerika pertama yang diangkat sebagai Jaksa Agung Amerika Serikat. Pengangkatannya datang dari Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson. Selama menjabat sebagai Jaksa Agung, ia meraih kemenangan dalam 14 dari 19 kasus yang diajukan ke Mahkamah Agung.

Dia adalah Hakim Agung Afrika-Amerika pertama di Mahkamah Agung AS

Kenaikan meteorik Marshall tidak berakhir sebagai Jaksa Agung. Pada tahun 1967, ia mengukir namanya dalam catatan sejarah saat ia menjadi orang Afrika-Amerika pertama yang menjabat di bangku Mahkamah Agung AS. Marshall menggantikan Hakim Tom C. Clark. Karena niat baik yang dia miliki di seluruh kesenjangan politik, pencalonannya dikonfirmasi oleh Senat dalam pemungutan suara 69 banding 11 pada 30 Agustus 1967. Dengan demikian, dia menjadi orang ke-96 yang menjabat di Mahkamah Agung AS.

Kedudukannya selama 24 tahun di Mahkamah Agung membuatnya menawarkan dukungan yang tak terukur untuk perlindungan minoritas dalam hal hak-hak individu, hak-hak sipil dan hak-hak bagi para pelaku kejahatan. Thurgood Marshall juga merupakan pendukung vokal hak-hak perempuan dan hak mereka untuk aborsi. Hakim yang terkenal juga menyuarakan penentangannya terhadap hukuman mati, yang menganggapnya sangat inkonstitusional dalam semua kasus.


Thurgood Marshall - Sejarah

Di mana Thurgood Marshall dibesarkan?

Thurgood Marshall lahir di Baltimore, Maryland pada 2 Juli 1908. Ayahnya, William, bekerja sebagai pelayan di sebuah country club yang serba putih. Ibunya, Norma, adalah seorang guru TK. Kakeknya adalah seorang budak yang memperoleh kebebasannya dengan melarikan diri dari Selatan selama Perang Saudara.

Marshall adalah siswa yang baik di sekolah, tetapi sering mendapat masalah karena berperilaku tidak baik. Dia suka berdebat dan menjadi bintang tim debat. Ayah Marshall senang pergi ke pengadilan dan mendengarkan kasus hukum. Hal ini menyebabkan Marshall ingin menjadi seorang pengacara, meskipun orang tuanya berharap dia akan mengikuti jejak kakaknya dan menjadi seorang dokter gigi.

Marshall kuliah di Universitas Lincoln di Pennsylvania. Saat kuliah, dia menikmati berada di tim debat dan bergabung dengan persaudaraan Alpha Phi Alpha. Dia juga jatuh cinta dengan Vivien Burey dan menikah pada tahun 1929. Setelah lulus dari Lincoln, Marshall ingin kuliah di University of Maryland. Namun, sekolah hukum mereka tidak mau menerimanya karena dia adalah orang Afrika-Amerika. Sebaliknya, Marshall pergi ke sekolah hukum di Universitas Howard di mana ia menyelesaikan kelasnya pertama, lulus pada tahun 1933.

Setelah lulus dan lulus ujian pengacara, Marshall membuka praktik hukum kecil di Baltimore. Salah satu kasus besar pertamanya adalah melawan University of Maryland. Marshall ingat bagaimana mereka tidak mau menerimanya karena rasnya. Pada tahun 1935, dia mendengar tentang siswa lain, Donald Murray, yang ditolak seperti Marshall. Marshall membawa University of Maryland ke pengadilan dan memenangkan kasus tersebut. Sekarang mereka harus membiarkan orang Afrika-Amerika bersekolah. Ini hanyalah awal dari perjuangan Marshall melawan segregasi.

Marshall mulai dikenal karena keahliannya sebagai pengacara dan kecintaannya pada hak-hak sipil. Dia menjadi kepala penasihat (pengacara utama) untuk NAACP (Asosiasi Nasional untuk Kemajuan Orang Kulit Berwarna). Selama beberapa tahun berikutnya, Marshall berkeliling negara membela orang Afrika-Amerika yang sering salah dituduh. Dia juga berjuang melawan segregasi dan hukum Jim Crow dari Selatan. Dia akhirnya mendapat julukan "Mr. Hak Sipil".

Brown v. Dewan Pendidikan

Kasus Marshall yang paling terkenal terjadi pada tahun 1954. Kasus itu disebut Brown v. Board of Education. Dalam hal ini Marshall berpendapat bahwa sekolah tidak boleh dipisah. Saat itu ada sekolah terpisah untuk anak kulit hitam dan anak kulit putih. Adalah ilegal di banyak negara bagian bagi anak-anak kulit hitam untuk bersekolah di sekolah yang sama dengan anak-anak kulit putih. Argumen yang digunakan banyak negara bagian adalah yang disebut "separate but equal". Marshall berpendapat bahwa sekolah yang terpisah tidak bisa sama. Dalam keputusan penting untuk Gerakan Hak Sipil, Marshall memenangkan kasus yang menunjukkan bahwa segregasi di sekolah tidak konstitusional.

Pada tahun 1961, Marshall diangkat sebagai hakim di Pengadilan Banding Amerika Serikat oleh Presiden John F. Kennedy. Dia bertugas di sana sampai tahun 1965 ketika dia menjadi Jaksa Agung Amerika Serikat. Sebagai Jaksa Agung ia mewakili pemerintah federal di hadapan Mahkamah Agung.

Hakim Agung

Presiden Lyndon Johnson menominasikan Thurgood Marshall untuk Mahkamah Agung pada tahun 1966. Dia dikukuhkan oleh Senat pada 30 Agustus 1967 dan menjadi Hakim Agung Afrika-Amerika pertama. Saat menjabat di Mahkamah Agung, Marshall memperjuangkan hak-hak individu. Dia bertugas di pengadilan selama 24 tahun. Dia pensiun pada tahun 1991 dan digantikan oleh hakim Afrika-Amerika lainnya, Clarence Thomas.

Thurgood Marshall meninggal karena gagal jantung pada 24 Januari 1993. Dia meninggalkan warisan menggunakan hukum dan Konstitusi untuk memperjuangkan hak semua orang. Dia mendobrak hambatan rasial, termasuk mencapai salah satu posisi tertinggi di pemerintahan sebagai anggota Mahkamah Agung.


Thurgood Marshall - Sejarah


Potret Thurgood Marshall.
Reproduksi courtesy of the Supreme Court Historical Society.

B. 2 Juli 1908, Baltimore, MD
D. 24 Januari 1993, Washington, D.C.

Wakil Hakim Mahkamah Agung
(1967-1991)

Thurgood Marshall, orang Afrika-Amerika pertama yang pernah bertugas di Pengadilan, adalah anak bungsu dari dua putra seorang portir kereta api yang kemudian bekerja sebagai staf country club khusus kulit putih. Ibunya adalah seorang guru sekolah. Marshall lulus dari Universitas Lincoln pada tahun 1930 dan mendaftar ke Fakultas Hukum Universitas Maryland tetapi ditolak karena rasnya. Dia kemudian menghadiri Sekolah Hukum Universitas Howard, meskipun ibunya harus menggadaikan cincin kawin dan pertunangannya untuk membayar uang sekolah. Dia lulus pertama di kelasnya pada tahun 1933, tepat ketika Amerika merasakan dampak penuh dari Depresi Hebat.

Segera setelah dia lulus, Marshall membuka kantor hukum di Baltimore, dan tahun berikutnya dia mewakili cabang lokal dari Asosiasi Nasional untuk Kemajuan Orang Kulit Berwarna (NAACP) dalam gugatan yang menantang kebijakan segregasi Fakultas Hukum Universitas Maryland. Dia memenangkan kasus tersebut, dan Marshall diangkat menjadi staf nasional NAACP pada tahun 1936, menjadi penasihat hukum utama organisasi tersebut pada tahun 1940. Dia tetap bersama NAACP selama total 25 tahun dan menjabat sebagai ahli strategi kunci dalam upaya hukum untuk mengakhiri segregasi rasial di seluruh masyarakat Amerika. Dalam serangkaian kasus pengadilan federal, Marshall dan mentornya, Charles Hamilton Houston, berangkat untuk membalikkan segregasi yang disetujui oleh keputusan Mahkamah Agung dalam Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Karena keputusan itu telah menyerukan lembaga-lembaga "terpisah tetapi setara" untuk orang kulit hitam dan kulit putih, NAACP berpendapat bahwa lembaga-lembaga untuk orang Afrika-Amerika tidak sama dengan lembaga-lembaga paralel untuk orang kulit putih. Serangkaian keputusan memutuskan mendukung NAACP, dan, mulai tahun 1945, Marshall mulai menantang doktrin Plessy itu sendiri. Hal ini akhirnya mengarah pada kasus penting Brown v. Board of Education, yang berhasil didebatkan oleh Marshall di hadapan Mahkamah Agung pada tahun 1952 dan sekali lagi pada tahun 1953. Keputusan Pengadilan yang dihasilkan membatalkan doktrin Plessy tentang "separate but equal," menyetujui bahwa diri siswa -harga diri dirugikan oleh fakta segregasi belaka. Sementara keputusan itu hanya berlaku untuk segregasi dalam pendidikan publik, keputusan itu mengatur panggung bagi gerakan hak-hak sipil. Marshall menang dalam 29 dari 32 kasus yang diajukannya ke Mahkamah Agung.

Presiden John F. Kennedy menominasikan Marshall ke Pengadilan Banding AS untuk Sirkuit Kedua pada tahun 1961. Presiden Lyndon Baines Johnson mengangkatnya sebagai pengacara umum pada tahun 1965 (orang Afrika-Amerika pertama yang memegang posisi ini). Pada tahun 1967 Presiden Johnson menciptakan celah di Mahkamah Agung dengan memilih jaksa agungnya Ramsey Clark, putra Associate Justice Tom Clark. Hakim Clark mengundurkan diri dari Pengadilan untuk menghindari konflik kepentingan, dan presiden menunjuk Marshall untuk mengisi kursinya. Marshall dikatakan telah berkomentar, "Saya memiliki janji seumur hidup dan saya berniat untuk melayaninya. Saya berharap untuk mati pada usia 110, ditembak oleh suami yang cemburu." Di jantung seorang liberal New Deal, Marshall menunjukkan komitmen yang teguh terhadap hak-hak sipil universal dan kebebasan sipil. Dia adalah penentang keras hukuman mati dan seorang libertarian sipil yang berdedikasi. Tidak ada keadilan yang lebih konsisten dalam menentang peraturan pemerintah tentang ucapan atau perilaku seksual pribadi. Ketika Pengadilan menjadi lebih konservatif di tahun-tahun terakhirnya dan ia menemukan dirinya dalam minoritas liberal, ia menulis, "Kekuasaan, bukan akal, adalah mata uang baru dari pengambilan keputusan Pengadilan ini." Dia pensiun pada tahun 1991.

Diterbitkan pada Desember 2006.
THE SUPREME COURT adalah produksi dari Thirteen/WNET New York.
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Warisan Tertinggi

Presiden John F. Kennedy menominasikan Marshall ke Pengadilan Banding AS untuk Sirkuit Kedua pada tahun 1961. Empat tahun kemudian, Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson menunjuk Marshall sebagai jaksa agung AS dan pada 30 Agustus 1967, Marshall dikonfirmasi oleh Senat AS dan bergabung dengan Mahkamah Agung AS, menjadi hakim kulit hitam pertama.

During his nearly 25-year tenure on the Supreme Court, Marshall fought for affirmative action for minorities, held strong against the death penalty, and supported of a woman's right to choose if an abortion was appropriate for her. The civil rights lawyer turned Supreme Court justice made a significant impact on American society and culture. His mission was equal justice for all. Marshall used the power of the courts to fight racism and discrimination, tear down Jim Crow segregation, change the status quo, and make life better for the most vulnerable in our nation.


Thurgood Marshall - History

Supreme Court justice and civil rights advocate

Who was Thurgood Marshall ?

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Thurgood Marshall biography

Born in Baltimore, Maryland on July 2, 1908, Thurgood Marshall was the grandson of a slave. His father, William Marshall, instilled in him from youth an appreciation for the United States Constitution and the rule of law. After completing high school in 1925, Thurgood followed his brother, William Aubrey Marshall, at the historically black Lincoln University in Chester County, Pennsylvania. His classmates at Lincoln included a distinguished group of future Black leaders such as the poet and author Langston Hughes, the future President of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah, and musician Cab Calloway. Just before graduation, he married his first wife, Vivian "Buster" Burey. Their twenty-five year marriage ended with her death from cancer in 1955.

In 1930, he applied to the University of Maryland Law School, but was denied admission because he was Black. This was an event that was to haunt him and direct his future professional life. Thurgood sought admission and was accepted at the Howard University Law School that same year and came under the immediate influence of the dynamic new dean, Charles Hamilton Houston, who instilled in all of his students the desire to apply the tenets of the Constitution to all Americans. Paramount in Houston's outlook was the need to overturn the 1898 Supreme Court ruling, Plessy v. Ferguson which established the legal doctrine called, "separate but equal." Marshall's first major court case came in 1933 when he successfully sued the University of Maryland to admit a young African American Amherst University graduate named Donald Gaines Murray. Applauding Marshall's victory, author H.L. Mencken wrote that the decision of denial by the University of Maryland Law School was "brutal and absurd," and they should not object to the "presence among them of a self-respecting and ambitious young Afro-American well prepared for his studies by four years of hard work in a class A college."

Thurgood Marshall followed his Howard University mentor, Charles Hamilton Houston to New York and later became Chief Counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). During this period, Mr. Marshall was asked by the United Nations and the United Kingdom to help draft the constitutions of the emerging African nations of Ghana and what is now Tanzania. It was felt that the person who so successfully fought for the rights of America's oppressed minority would be the perfect person to ensure the rights of the White citizens in these two former European colonies. After amassing an impressive record of Supreme Court challenges to state-sponsored discrimination, including the landmark Brown v. Board decision in 1954, President John F. Kennedy appointed Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. In this capacity, he wrote over 150 decisions including support for the rights of immigrants, limiting government intrusion in cases involving illegal search and seizure, double jeopardy, and right to privacy issues. Biographers Michael Davis and Hunter Clark note that, "none of his (Marshall's) 98 majority decisions was ever reversed by the Supreme Court." In 1965 President Lyndon Johnson appointed Judge Marshall to the office of U.S. Solicitor General. Before his subsequent nomination to the United States Supreme Court in 1967, Thurgood Marshall won 14 of the 19 cases he argued before the Supreme Court on behalf of the government. Indeed, Thurgood Marshall represented and won more cases before the United States Supreme Court than any other American.

Until his retirement from the highest court in the land, Justice Marshall established a record for supporting the voiceless American. Having honed his skills since the case against the University of Maryland, he developed a profound sensitivity to injustice by way of the crucible of racial discrimination in this country. As an Associate Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall leaves a legacy that expands that early sensitivity to include all of America's voiceless. Justice Marshall died on January 24, 1993.

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Facts about Thurgood Marshall

Thoroughgood Marshall was born July 2, 1908, in Baltimore, Maryland his father was a railroad porter and his mother a schoolteacher. After a brief period in New York City, the family moved to a racially diverse, largely middle class neighborhood in Baltimore called Druid Hill, although he attended segregated schools, graduating from the city's Colored High School in 1924 when he was only 16 years old. (He shortened his name to Thurgood in the second grade.)
Marshall's exposure to the law and the Constitution was unusually early. His father, William Marshall, never attended college, but he was fascinated by court trials and often took his son along with him. Marshall described himself as a "hell raiser" as a child, and while his naturally argumentative nature may have gotten him into a certain amount of trouble, it would prove a useful trait as a lawyer. One of Marshall's punishments for talking too much involved the U.S. Constitution.

"Instead of making us copy out stuff on the blackboard after school when we misbehaved," Marshall later recalled, "our teacher sent us down into the basement to learn parts of the Constitution. I made my way through every paragraph."

These early experiences reinforced many of the deepest convictions that shaped Marshall's professional career, including the importance of education for individual advancement, a deep respect for the legal profession, and the recognition of the bonds of family and community. "None of us got where we are solely by pulling ourselves up by our bootstraps," Marshall said later.

Thurgood Marshall while he was a student at Lincoln University. The photo is Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity pledges (Marshall is 2nd from right in middle row).
Thurgood Marshall graduated cum laude with a bachelor's degree from Lincoln University in 1930. Lincoln University in rural Pennsylvania, is one of the nation's oldest Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The school was chartered in 1854 as the Ashmun Institute and described by one of its early presidents as "the first institution found anywhere in the world to provide a higher education in the arts and sciences for male youth of African descent." It was renamed after President Abraham Lincoln in 1866. Among Lincoln's distinguished graduates were Marshall's classmate Langston Hughes musician Cab Calloway Kwame Nkrumah, first leader of an independent Ghana and Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria.
At Lincoln, Marshall's interest in civil rights and the law deepened and he became a star member of the school's debating team, which competed against teams from such powerhouse institutions as Harvard University and Britain's Cambridge University. Marshall also met and married Vivian Burey in 1929, then a student at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
Photo Above:

In 1934, Thurgood Marshall graduated first in his class from Howard University Law School. Marshall wanted to attend the University of Maryland Law School but did not apply after it became clear that he would not be admitted into the segregated institution. The rejection stung deeply, but he refused to be deterred from a legal education by enrolling at one of America's most distinguished HBCUs, Howard University Law School in Washington, D.C. He made the long daily commute from Baltimore to Howard because he couldn't afford housing. His mother pawned her wedding and engagement rings to help pay the tuition. Marshall nevertheless excelled at Howard, graduating first in his class in 1933.
At Howard, Marshall made the most important professional friendship and alliance of his career with Professor Charles Hamilton Houston, who served as an important intellectual father to the 20th-century civil rights movement in the United States.

Houston, a Harvard Law School graduate, later served as chief legal counsel to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), a position in which he would later be succeeded by Marshall himself. Houston was the first African American lawyer to win a case before the U.S. Supreme Court.

Marshall credited Houston, who died in 1950, with devising the basic legal strategy that ultimately succeeded in legal segregation in the United States, specifically the "separate but equal" provisions of the Supreme Court's 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision.

"Charlie Houston insisted that we be social engineers rather than lawyers," Marshall said in a 1992 interview published by the American Bar Association. Referring to Brown v. Board of Education, Marshall said, "The school case was really Charlie's victory. He just never got a chance to see it."

A Career and a Cause
After earning his law degree, Marshall opened a law office in Baltimore in the depths of the Great Depression but quickly found himself in debt by handling civil rights cases for poor clients. In 1934 he went to work for the NAACP. A year later, with Houston as his adviser, Marshall won his first major racial discrimination case, Murray v. Pearson, which ended segregation of the University of Maryland's Law School. The victory over the school that had previously denied him admittance was especially sweet for Marshall, but the decision didn't strike at the heart of segregation since it was won on the grounds that the state of Maryland could not provide a credible "separate but equal" institution for providing African Americans with a legal education.

In 1936 Marshall became a staff NAACP lawyer based in New York two years later, he succeeded Houston as the organization's chief counsel, although the two continued to work closely together. Marshall founded the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund in 1940. (The Fund became a separate organization in 1957.)
"Under Marshall, the NAACP's legal staff became the model for public interest law firms," wrote one of his biographers, Mark Tushnet. "Marshall was thus one of the first public interest lawyers. His commitment to racial justice led him and his staff to develop ways of thinking about constitutional litigation that have been enormously influential far beyond the areas of segregation and discrimination."

The Long Campaign
Together, Marshall and Houston mapped a long-term strategy to challenge and eradicate segregation in the United States that focused chiefly but not exclusively on education. At the time, the NAACP was devoting much of its resources to equalizing spending and resources for black schools operating in a racially segregated system.

Marshall convinced the NAACP to abandon that approach and said he would accept only cases that challenged segregation itself. The policy shift was controversial within the organization at the time, and several black lawyers who worked with the NAACP in the South resigned, increasing the burden on Marshall and his staff.

For two decades, Marshall traveled constantly, up to 50,000 miles a year, supervising more than 400 cases at a time and often facing the threat of harassment and even physical attack. "I was on the verge of a nervous breakdown for a long time, but never quite made the grade," he commented.

Marshall's record of success in striking down discriminatory and segregationist laws was extraordinary, winning 29 of 32 cases he argued. Among the most significant:

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938)
argued before the court by Charles Houston, extended the Maryland Murray v. Pearson decision to the entire nation, maintaining that a state with a single law school could not discriminate on the basis of race.

Chambers v. Florida (1940)
reversed the conviction of four black men accused of murder on grounds that excessive police pressure and coercion rendered their confessions inadmissible.

Smith v. Allwright (1944)
prohibited "whites only" primary elections that selected candidates for the general election. Marshall considered this case one of his most important victories, according to biographer Juan Williams.

Morgan v. Virginia (1946)
barred segregation in interstate bus transportation. Marshall also prevailed on the court to desegregate bus terminals who served interstate passengers. The Morgan decision served as the legal basis for the celebrated "Freedom Rides" of the early 1960s.

Patton v. Mississippi (1947)
maintained that juries from which African Americans had been systematically excluded could not convict black defendants.

Shelly v. Kraemer (1948)
declared that racially restrictive covenants preventing the sale of property to African Americans or other minorities could not be enforced by the state and were therefore null and void.
Sweatt v. Painter (1950)
held that the University of Texas School of Law could not deny admittance to an African American student since the separate law school for blacks did not provide anything approaching "substantive equality."

McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950)
held that institutions of higher learning could not discriminate solely on the basis of race to meet the state's segregation requirements. The case involved an African American graduate student at the University of Oklahoma who was separated from the other students in the classroom and elsewhere on campus.

Along with his unwavering commitment to racial equality, legal scholarship, and intense preparation, Marshall commanded the courtroom with an orator's eloquence and a storyteller's charm. His later Supreme Court colleague William Brennan wrote of Marshall's stories, "They are brought to life by all the tricks of the storyteller's art: the fluid voice, the mobile eyebrows, the sidelong glance, the pregnant pause and the wry smile."

But they serve a deeper purpose, Brennan continued. "They are his way of preserving the past while purging it of its bleakest moments. They are also a form of education for the rest of us. Surely, Justice Marshall recognized that the stories made us – his colleagues – confront walks of life we had never know."

Thurgood Marshall, Sr. was sworn into office as the first African-American associate justice of the United States Supreme Court on October 2, 1967. His appointment by President Lyndon B. Johnson was simultaneously and ostensibly both a historic and a defining moment for America.

Justice Marshall’s appointment came at a pivotal time in American history, following his two-year appointment by President John F. Kennedy as United States Solicitor General (1965-1967). The nation was also grappling with several national issues that had bitterly divided Americans such as civil rights, the Vietnam War, desegregation of public schools, integration, race relations, abortion and the growing competitiveness between conservative views and liberal views and interestingly, many of those issues would come before the High Court during Justice Marshall’s 24-year term of service.

Yet, the state of the nation in 1967 was ideal for the new associate justice, a man who had spent 34 years of his life fighting for the civil rights of black Americans and the poor primarily but whose legal victories ultimately advanced the rights of all Americans. Prior to his appointment as an associate justice, Justice Marshall had won a stunning 29 of the 32 cases he argued before the Supreme Court, distinguishing himself as an advocate of the Court.

Justice Marshall’s 24 years on the Supreme Court continued his tireless fight for civil rights and his unyielding vision of the Constitution fulfilling its promise of equality for all Americans. His decisions were sometimes met with the intense opposition of his peers on many issues of national prominence such as the death penalty, abortion, desegregation and laws affecting the rights of the poor. However, he never compromised the values, beliefs and convictions that had guided his success as a lawyer who was often credited as being a leading architect of the civil rights movement.

The First Years
During his first years on the High Court, Justice Marshall signed very few dissents as he generally voted with the liberal majority of justices who were on the Court at that time. Some the more notable cases that the justices heard included:

Mempa v. Rhay in 1967, in which Justice Marshall wrote his first opinion in a unanimous decision that granted defendants the right to an attorney during every stage of the criminal process. He particularly expressed his belief this right was important to the poor.
Stanley v. Georgia in 1969, which held that the private possession of pornography could not be subject to prosecution.
Benton v. Maryland in 1969, which gave defendants protection against double jeopardy in state courts.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg in 1970, in which Justice Marshall persuaded his colleagues to unanimously confirm the use of busing to integrate public schools, an issue that was close to his heart in light of his landmark case Brown v. Board of Education.

The 1970s: A Time of Change
1970 ushered in a new era of conservatism as the Court became skewed with more conservative justices. By 1972, Justice Marshall was the only remaining appointee of President Johnson and the 1970s marked the beginning of his legal battles against conservatives that followed him throughout his remaining years on the Court. Two landmark cases in which his personal convictions led him to fight vigorously for what he believed was right involved abortion and the death penalty:

Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton in 1971 were landmark cases revolving around Texas and Georgia statutes restricting abortions. The justices were divided on the issue as well and Justice Marshall was openly aggressive in trying to the shape the Court’s opinion. In the end, he prevailed and the controversial ruling allowed abortion until such time that the fetus had viability outside the mother’s body.
Furman v. Georgia in 1972 prompted Justice Marshall to become the leader of the justices who were opposed to the death penalty. They won a difficult 5-4 vote outlawing capital punishment and marking the beginning of the justice’s long fight on the Court against the death penalty, which he vehemently opposed. He argued that the death penalty was applied inconsistently to different defendants and often was only applied to minorities and the indigent.

Over the years, as more conservative justices were appointed to the High Court, justices such as Justice Marshall and his ally Justice William Brennan, slowly became the minority. This sparked the beginning of Justice Marshall’s foray into writing a number of dissents, a practice that he would continue until his retirement in 1991 and also resulted in others in the judicial system to dub him “The Great Dissenter.” Two of his early and best known dissenting opinions occurred in two cases that shared similarities with Brown v. Board of Education.

In the 1973 case San Antonio School District v. Rodriguez, the majority cast a 5-4 vote that the Constitution’s guarantee of equal protection was not violated by the property tax system used by Texas and most other states to finance public education. In a dissenting opinion, Justice Marshall argued that the right to an education should be regarded as a fundamental constitutional right and when state policies have the effect of discriminating on the basis of wealth, the policies should be subject to judicial scrutiny.

In 1974, black parents sued after the Detroit courts would not approve their request that the black urban school district and the white suburban school districts be merged to promote integration. After the parents won in the lower courts and appeals court, the Supreme Court reversed the rulings. Justice Marshall wrote an extremely strong dissenting opinion citing Brown v. Board of Education.

Justice Marshall’s work during the mid 1970s centered on one issue that he viewed as having among the greatest implications for society: the death penalty. When the High Court heard another death penalty case, there was a 7-2 vote to reinstate capital punishment in 1976, bitterly disappointing him.

Two days after reading his dissent to the majority opinion on the death penalty, Justice Marshall suffered his first heart attack while at home in his Fairfax County, Virginia. Over the next three days, he suffered two more heart attacks while hospitalized, marking the beginning his 15-year struggle with maintaining the rigors of serving on the conservative majority Supreme Court amid his deteriorating health.

Over the next five years, Justice Marshall faced tremendous pressure as new cases that went to the heart of his lifelong efforts on civil rights erupted and came before the Court, including a new cases on abortion, affirmative action and contracts for minority businesses.

Justice Marshall wrote a particularly impassioned dissent following the Court’s decision in the critical 1997 Bakke case. The case involved a young white man, Allan Bakke, who sued the University of California at Davis. Bakke asserted that the university had violated his Fourteenth Amendment rights when 16 minority students with lower grades than he had been admitted to the medical school, while he had been denied. The case was long and particularly divisive, ending a 5-4 majority voting against the university, which was a great disappointment to Justice Marshall.

1980-1991: Forging Ahead
Justice Marshall, though battling failing health and battling conservatives on the Court, presented powerfully persuasive arguments on the first major race relations case of the 1980s, which involved the constitutionality of a federal government plan to set aside 10 percent of its contracts for minority businesses. He cited the history of government-approved racial discrimination and the need for the government to remedy it. The Court voted 6-3 in support of Justice Marshall’s arguments, giving him a needed victory.

Throughout the 1980s, Justice Marshall continued to argue strategically and vigorously in cases that asserted a more expansive focus on civil rights in areas such as the homeless, the indigent and prisoners with mental problems. He saw some major victories such as two cases involving the death penalty for mentally ill inmates being overturned. In those cases in which his arguments did not prevail, Justice Marshall continued his track record of strongly worded dissents.

He wrote dissents in every death penalty case and every case in which black defendants charged that prosecutors used race as a basis for not allowing black jurors. A 1986 case gave Justice Marshall a tremendously satisfying victory when in a 7-2 ruling, the justices held that black jurors could not be excluded simply because the defendant was also black.

By 1990, amid failing health and as the sole justice appointed by a Democratic president, Justice Marshall continued writing strongly-worded dissents in response to the Court’s notably regressive stand on civil rights cases.

In June 1991, he officially announced its retirement but continued to serve the law until his health prevented him from leaving his home.

He died of heart failure at Bethesda Medical Center at age 84 on Sunday, January 24, 1993.

Thurgood Marshall had given his life to the crusade for civil rights and justice for all, leaving an indelible imprint on history and on the lives of future generations of Americans.

Marshall was born to Norma A. Marshall and William Canfield on July 2, 1908. His parents were mulatottes, which are people classified as being at least half white. Norma and William were raised as “Negroes” and each taught their children to be proud of their ancestry. Furthermore, Marshall’s parents were against segregation, and instilled education as a means of uplift for their children. This passion for anti-segregation and education clearly transcended to Thurgood Marshall, Sr.

William, Thurgood’s father, worked full-time as a Pullman-car waiter and he had a deep passion for writing. He was later appointed a steward in Chesapeake Bay at the Gibson Island Club. Norma Marshall was an educator who taught elementary school. She enrolled in a teacher’s training program at Thurgood Marshall College Fund member institution Coppin State College. Norma became pregnant just prior to her graduation however, she later completed her degree and William was in full support of her becoming a college graduate.

On December 17, 1955, Marshall married Cecila “Cissy” Suyat Marshall. In 1956, Thurgood Marshall, Jr. was born, who was Marshall’s first child. Presently, Marshall Jr. is an attorney in Washington, D.C. He is employed as a partner with Bingham McCutchen and a principal with the Bingham Consulting Group. Marshall, Jr. formerly served as Assistant to the President and a Cabinet Secretary under William “Bill” Jefferson Clinton from 1997 to 2001. He earned baccalaureate and juris doctor degrees from the University of Virginia. He is serving or has served on various boards, specifically the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service, Board of Trustees of the Ford Foundation, National Fish and Wildlife Association, Corrections Corporation of America, Third Way, National Women's Law Center, University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service, and Supreme Court Historical Society. He currently lives in Virginia with his wife Teddi Marshall and their two sons, Will and Patrick. The couple remained married until Marshall’s death in 1993.

Thurgood Marshall’s Wife and Sons

Eight months after his wedding, Thurgood Marshall, Jr. was born, who was Marshall’s first child. Presently, Marshall Jr. is an attorney in Washington, D.C. He is employed as a partner with Bingham McCutchen and a principal with the Bingham Consulting Group. Marshall, Jr. formerly served as Assistant to the President and a Cabinet Secretary under William “Bill” Jefferson Clinton from 1997 to 2001. He earned baccalaureate and juris doctor degrees from the University of Virginia. He is serving or has served on various boards, specifically the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service, Board of Trustees of the Ford Foundation, National Fish and Wildlife Association, Corrections Corporation of America, Third Way, National Women's Law Center, University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service, and Supreme Court Historical Society. He currently lives in Virginia with his wife Teddi Marshall and their two sons, Will and Patrick.

A few years after the birth of Marshall, Jr., Cissy Marshall delivered a second baby boy. In July 1958, John W. Marshall was born. During the time of John’s birth, polls among African Americans revealed that Marshall, Sr. was tied with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. for the title of “Most Important Black Leader” for his stance on civil rights. Currently, John W. Marshall serves as Secretary of Public Safety for the Commonwealth of Virginia under the leadership of Governor Timothy M. Kaine. Secretary Marshall was first appointed under Governor Mark Warner in 2002 and re-appointed in January 2006. In his role, he has “responsibility for the oversight of 14 agencies and over 22,000 employees, including the Department of Corrections, Virginia National Guard and the Virginia State Police.” Educated at Georgetown University with an undergraduate degree in government, Secretary Marshall also obtained a post-baccalaureate certificate in administration of justice from Virginia Commonwealth University. Of note, Secretary Marshall is the first African American to serve as Director of the U.S. Marshall Service, America’s oldest federal law enforcement organization.

Thurgood Marshall Jr. (BIOGRAPHY)

Thurgood Marshall, Jr.Thurgood Marshall Jr. represents client interests before Congress, the executive branch and independent regulatory agencies. He provides guidance regarding ethics compliance and corporate governance and has developed legislative and regulatory strategies for clients involved in corporate mergers, professional and amateur sports, commercial aviation, utility and banking regulation, pharmaceuticals, and legal process reforms. He has also represented numerous witnesses involved in congressional investigations.

Thurgood's professional background includes service in each branch of the federal government and in the private sector. Prior to joining the firm, he was a member of the White House senior staff in the Clinton Administration, holding the position of assistant to the president and cabinet secretary from 1997 to 2001. In that position, he was the liaison between the president and the executive branch agencies. He served on the president's Management Council and was a senior member of the Continuity in Government team and directed the White House responses to natural disasters and transportation emergencies, including commercial aircraft crashes. Thurgood also co-chaired the White House Olympic Task Force. In that capacity, he coordinated the involvement of the federal government in the preparations for the 2002 Salt Lake Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Prior to his appointment as cabinet secretary, Thurgood was director of legislative affairs and deputy counsel to Vice President Al Gore. He managed all of the vice president's legislative activities, held a position on the Senate leadership staff and played a leading role on a wide range of legislative priorities throughout the first term of the Clinton administration. Before that, he was counsel to the Senate Judiciary Committee and the Committee on Commerce, Science & Transportation, as well as the Governmental Affairs Committee. He worked extensively on legislative initiatives ranging from antitrust, criminal procedure, corporate crime, insurance, intellectual property and telecommunications, to consumer protection, transportation safety and product liability.

Thurgood began his legal career as a law clerk to U.S. District Judge Barrington D. Parker of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.

He serves on the boards of Corrections Corporation of America and the Ford Foundation and was appointed by President George W. Bush on the recommendation of Senator Harry Reid to serve as a member of the board of governors of the United States Postal Service.

John W. Marshall (BIOGRAPHY)

Secretary of Public Safety John W. Marshall

On January 15, 2006, Governor Timothy M. Kaine appointed John W. Marshall to the position of Secretary of Public Safety. As Secretary of Public Safety, Marshall has responsibility for the oversight of 14 agencies and over 22,000 employees, including the Department of Corrections, Virginia National Guard and the Virginia State Police. Prior to his appointment by Governor Kaine, Marshall was appointed Secretary of Public Safety by Governor Mark R. Warner in January 2002.

John Marshall began his career in public service and law enforcement in 1980 as a Virginia State Trooper. During his 14 years with the Department of State Police, he also served as a Special Agent in the Narcotics Division, Sergeant-Instructor at the Training Academy and as a Sergeant assigned to Field Operations.

In 1994, President William J. Clinton appointed Marshall to serve as the United States Marshal for the Eastern District of Virginia. Later in 1999, President Clinton nominated Marshall to serve as the Director of the United States Marshals Service, our nation’s oldest federal law enforcement agency. Upon confirmation by the U.S. Senate, Marshall took office as Director in November of 1999. He is the first African-American to serve as the Director.

Secretary Marshall graduated from Georgetown University in1988 with a BA in Government, and he also holds a Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in the Administration of Justice from Virginia Commonwealth University.

Drama Desk, Emmy, and Tony awards’ winner and Oscar nominee, Laurence Fishburne plays civil rights victor Thurgood Marshall, Sr. in a one-man Broadway play entitled Thurgood. Opening on April 30, 2008 at the Booth Theater in New York City, Fishburne portrays the late Marshall’s life from his job as a waiter at a country club to his position as an Associate Justice on the High Court. Marshall is remembered as the first African American Supreme Court Justice. Broadway.com describes Thurgood as: “a triumph of courage—not just for the man, but for the nation he bravely challenged and proudly served.”
Thurgood Marshall College Fund Honors Actor Laurence Fishburne, Award Of Excellence
Actor awarded for portrayal of late Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall

New York, NY – May 1, 2008 – Thurgood Marshall College Fund (TMCF) president and CEO, Dwayne Ashley honored actor Laurence Fishburne with an Award of Excellence for his portrayal in “Thurgood” a one-man play, which opened last night, Wednesday, April 30, 2008, at the Booth Theater in New York City. The play is based on the life and times of the late Justice Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American to sit on the United States Supreme Court and NAACP’s lead counsel in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case.

Fishburne, the recipient of Drama Desk, Tony and Emmy awards as well as a nomination for an Academy Award, has an acting career that spans more than 35 years. In this moving role, Fishburne narrates the life of Thurgood Marshall from his days waiting tables at a country club to his tenure as a United States Supreme Court Justice.

Ashley noted to Fishburne during the recognition, “Just as Thurgood Marshall exemplified in his works and deeds on behalf of our nation, I present this bust in his image to you for the body of work you have done in your career. The excellence you have exemplified in your craft culminating with your brilliant portrayal of Justice Marshall this evening is the best of the best.”

“It is only fitting that the Thurgood Marshall College Fund recognize Laurence Fishburne for his moving portrayal of this organization’s namesake,” said Ashley. “We applaud Mr. Fishburne for his contribution to entertainment and expanding Thurgood Marshall’s legacy through this production.”


Little Known Black History Fact: Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall’s most notable achievement among the many of his storied career is his distinction as the first African-American Supreme Court Justice. But the late legal giant’s formative years set into motion many of his ideals, and some of that will be examined in the upcoming film Marshall dibintangi Chadwick Boseman.

Marshall was born July 2, 1908, in Baltimore, Maryland. He attended HBCU Lincoln University in Pennsylvania with the likes of poet Langston Hughes, future president of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah, and jazz legend Cab Calloway. Marshall’s own path to greatness was well-honed too, with the mentorship of famed civil rights attorney and Howard University Law School professor Charles Houston.

The path to Howard wasn’t Marshall’s first choice. Despite being beyond qualified to enter law school at the University of Maryland, he was denied based on race. This inspired Marshall’s lifelong desire to fight against segregation in schools. In 1936, after being hired by the Baltimore NAACP, Marshall and Houston won the landmark “Murray v. Pearson” case, which led to Donald Murray becoming the first Black student to enter the University of Maryland’s law school.

Perhaps Marshall’s biggest victory came with the 1954 “Brown v. Board of Education” case, which effectively desegregated schools nationwide.

Fifty years ago on Oct. 2, Marshall was named as one of the United State Supreme Court justices, the first African-American to do so after President Lyndon B. Johnson’s appointment. Marshall served in the role until his retirement in 1991. He passed two years later in 1993.


Tonton videonya: How This Court Case Won Equal Education For Black Students. Thurgood Marshall. Absolute History (Juli 2022).


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