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Pertempuran Gettysburg, 2 Juli, 15:30

Pertempuran Gettysburg, 2 Juli, 15:30


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Hari kedua pertempuran Gettysburg, 2 Juli, 15:30

Peta yang menunjukkan hari kedua pertempuran Gettysburg, 2 Juli, 15:30

Peta diambil dari Pertempuran dan Pemimpin Perang Saudara: III: Mundur dari Gettysburg, hal.299

Gettysburg: The Last Invasion, Allen C. Guelzo . Sebuah kisah yang sangat baik tentang kampanye Gettysburg, diilustrasikan oleh pilihan saksi mata yang luar biasa. Berfokus pada tindakan komandan individu, dari Meade dan Lee hingga komandan resimen, dengan fokus pada komandan korps dan aktivitas serta sikap mereka. Didukung oleh banyak akun dari bawah rantai komando dan dari warga sipil yang terjebak dalam pertempuran. [baca ulasan lengkap]

Bintang di Kursus Mereka: Kampanye Gettysburg, Shelby Foote, 304 halaman. Diteliti dengan baik dan ditulis oleh salah satu sejarawan Perang Sipil paling terkenal, karya ini diambil dari tiga volume karyanya yang lebih panjang tentang perang, tetapi tidak menderita karenanya.

Kembali ke: Pertempuran Gettysburg - Koleksi Peta Gettysburg



Pertempuran Gettysburg

Segera setelah kemenangannya di Chancellorsville, Jenderal Lee mempersiapkan Angkatan Darat Virginia Utara untuk kampanye yang akan datang. Dia mengatur ulang infanterinya menjadi tiga korps yang masing-masing terdiri dari tiga divisi dan menempatkan mereka di bawah komando Letnan Jenderal James Longstreet, Richard S. Ewell, dan A. Powell Hill. (Sebuah korps Konfederasi berjumlah sekitar 20.000 prajurit infanteri, 2.000 prajurit artileri, sebuah divisi 6.000 prajurit infanteri, dan satu brigade 1.500 orang.) Divisi kavalerinya tetap di bawah komando Mayor Jenderal James E. B. Stuart, dan dia membagi batalyon artileri pendukung untuk masing-masing. Angkatan Darat Virginia Utara berjumlah sekitar 75.000 perwira dan pria, hampir 10.000 di antaranya adalah kavaleri.

Setelah kekalahannya di Chancellorsville, Tentara Jenderal Hooker dari Potomac kembali ke posisinya di dekat Fredericksburg dan bersiap untuk serangan baru menuju Richmond. Lee mempertahankan inisiatif yang diperoleh di Chancellorsville, bagaimanapun, dan pada 6 Juni meluncurkan kampanye ambisiusnya sendiri. Karena dia tidak melihat apa pun yang bisa diperoleh dari pertempuran lain di daerah Fredericksburg, dia memutuskan langkah berani yang akan memindahkan tempat permusuhan ke utara Sungai Potomac. Jika ini bisa dilakukan, itu mungkin mengganggu rencana kampanye Federal untuk musim ini, menyingkirkan pasukan Federal dari Lembah Shenandoah, dan memberinya kesempatan untuk memenangkan kemenangan yang menentukan bagi Konfederasi.

"A CAVALRY CHARGE," ILUSTRASI OLEH EDWIN FORBES (BL)

Meninggalkan Korps Hill untuk menjaga penyeberangan Sungai Rappahannock di Fredericksburg, Lee memindahkan Korps Ewell dan Longstreet ke barat dan utara ke daerah Culpeper di mana banyak kavaleri Stuart telah berkumpul untuk berbaris ke utara. Di sana pada tanggal 9 Juni, untuk mematuhi perintah Hooker untuk "membubarkan dan menghancurkan" pasukan Konfederasi di daerah itu, Korpus Kavaleri Angkatan Darat Potomac mengejutkan dan hampir mengalahkan penunggang kuda Konfederasi dalam pertempuran Stasiun Brandy, pertempuran kavaleri terbesar dari perang. Pertempuran itu menarik Federals berkuda dari lapangan, meninggalkan Stuart untuk merawat harga dirinya yang terluka. Mayor Jenderal Alfred Pleasonton, komandan kavaleri Union, bagaimanapun, telah mengkonfirmasi bahwa Konfederasi yang berlaku di daerah Culpeper, dan penunggang kuda Union telah belajar bahwa mereka dapat "membantah superioritas sampai sekarang diklaim oleh, dan mengakui Konfederasi kavaleri."

MAYOR JENDERAL JOSEPH HOOKER, KOMANDAN, TENTARA POTOMAC. DILIHAT PADA 28 JUNI 1863 (GNMP)

Pada 10 Juni Korps Ewell meninggalkan Culpeper menuju Lembah Shenandoah. Empat hari kemudian ia merebut garnisun Union di Winchester dan sejumlah besar persediaan di sana dan di Martinsburg. Korps Ewell mencapai Potomac dekat Hagerstown pada 15 Juni. Saat Ewell mendekati Potomac, Korps Longstreet bergerak ke timur laut Blue Ridge ke celah gunung di barat Washington. Di sana ia dan pasukan kavaleri Stuart menjaga kanan dan belakang Konfederasi saat sisa pasukan Lee bergerak ke utara. Pada pertengahan Juni, Korps Hill juga berbaris dari Fredericksburg menuju Front Royal dan Lembah Shenandoah di luarnya. Rencana Lee untuk memindahkan teater operasi dari Virginia berjalan dengan baik.

Jenderal Hooker tahu bahwa pasukan Lee sedang bergerak ke utara tetapi tidak dapat menebak maksud atau tujuan Lee. Ketika menjadi jelas bahwa hanya Korps Hill yang tersisa di Fredericksburg, Hooker menyarankan agar dia diizinkan untuk menyerang dan maju ke Richmond. Meskipun saran ini memiliki beberapa manfaat pada waktu itu, Lincoln menyangkalnya, mengamati bahwa pasukan Lee adalah "titik objektif yang pasti." Oleh karena itu, Hooker memindahkan Tentara Potomac ke wilayah barat Washington dan selatan Potomac, di mana ia dapat menghadapi kekuatan utama Lee dan melindungi Washington. Upaya Hooker untuk mengetahui lokasi tentara Lee di sebelah barat Washington dengan mengirimkan penyelidikan kavaleri dan infanteri melalui celah gunung di sana mengakibatkan perkelahian yang hidup dengan anak buah Stuart di Aldie, Middleburg, dan Upperville, tetapi mereka memberikan sedikit informasi dan tidak secara serius mengganggu pergerakan Lee.

Korps Ewell dan brigade kavaleri Brigadir Jenderal Albert G. Jenkins melintasi Potomac pada tanggal 15 Juni dan menuju utara ke Lembah Cumberland ke Hagerstown dan Chambersburg dalam serangan raksasa, menyapu negara itu untuk mencari perbekalan. Di Chambersburg, Ewell yang berkaki satu membagi pasukannya, mengirim divisi Mayor Jenderal Jubal A. Early ke timur ke Gettysburg, York, dan Sungai Susquehanna di seberangnya. Sementara itu, Ewell terus ke utara ke Carlisle dan menuju Harrisburg dengan divisi Mayor Gens. Robert E.Rodes dan Edward Johnson. Pada tanggal 29 Juni pasukan Early mencapai Sungai Susquehanna di Wrightsville, dan divisi Rodes mengancam Harrisburg. Pada saat ini korps Hill dan Longstreet telah menyeberangi Potomac pada tanggal 24 dan 25 Juni dan mencapai daerah Chambersburg pada tanggal 27. Mereka menduduki Chambersburg dan Cashtown Pass di atas South Mountain di sebelah timur.

Pada tanggal 25 Juni, saat mengetahui bahwa pasukan Lee telah menyeberangi Potomac, Hooker memerintahkan Tentara Potomac dari Virginia ke bagian Maryland antara Frederick dan sungai. Sementara itu komando Federal lainnya di daerah yang terancam bersiap untuk menghadapi ancaman Konfederasi, dan Gubernur Andrew Curtin dari Pennsylvania bekerja untuk mengatur milisi Pennsylvania untuk mempertahankan Harrisburg dan poin penting lainnya di Negara Bagian Keystone.


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LEE INVADES PENNSYLVANIA, 3 JUNI 30 JUNI 1863
Pada tanggal 3 Juni 1863, Angkatan Darat Virginia Utara mulai bergerak ke barat untuk menyeberangi Pegunungan Blue Ridge dan mendapatkan Lembah Shenandoah. Pada saat Jenderal Hooker mengetahui tujuan Lee, tentara Konfederasi telah memasuki lembah dan bergerak ke utara untuk menyeberangi Potomac dan menyerang Maryland dan Pennsylvania. Tentara Persatuan Potomac menarik diri dari garis Sungai Rappahannock dan mulai berbaris ke utara untuk mencegat tentara Lee.

Setelah melintasi Potomac, Lee kehilangan kontak dengan Stuart dan sebagian besar kavaleri Konfederasi. Dia telah menginstruksikan jenderal itu untuk menjaga celah gunung dengan sebagian penunggang kudanya selama musuh berada di selatan Potomac dan menyeberangi sungai itu dengan sisanya untuk menyaring hak Ewell. Stuart melihat bahwa pasukannya menjaga celah-celah itu, tetapi dia berusaha mencapai kanan Ewell, bukan melalui rute langsung di dekat pegunungan, tetapi dengan memimpin tiga brigade terbaiknya antara tentara Union dan Washington. Stuart berharap langkah seperti itu akan menciptakan kekacauan di antara musuh dan menghilangkan noda Brandy Station dari reputasinya. Tapi pertaruhannya gagal, pasukan Union bergerak dan mencegahnya mencapai kanan Ewell. Dengan demikian, tiga brigade yang salah menyeberangi Potomac di Rowser's Ford dan melaju ke utara melalui Rockville, Westminster, dan Hanover ke Carlisle, sama sekali tidak berhubungan dengan Jenderal Lee dan tentara utama dan tidak memberikan intelijen dan penyaringan yang penting untuk keberhasilannya. Kegagalan Stuart untuk menutupi hak tentara Lee dan memberinya informasi tentang musuh adalah salah satu kesalahan besar Konfederasi Kampanye Gettysburg.

JAMES UMUM UTAMA. E. B. STUART, KOMANDAN, DIVISI KAVALRY, TENTARA VIRGINIA UTARA. (GNMP)

MAYOR JENDERAL GEORGE G. MEADE (DUDUK, TENGAH), KOMANDAN, TENTARA POTOMAC, & STAF. (LC)

Awal tanggal 28 Juni, ketika Tentara Potomac terkonsentrasi di dekat Frederick, Maryland, seorang utusan dari Departemen Perang tiba dengan perintah untuk membebaskan Jenderal Hooker dari komando tentara itu dan menggantikannya dengan Mayor Jenderal George G. Meade, komandan dari Korps Kelima Persatuan. Hooker dengan tergesa-gesa menawarkan pengunduran dirinya pada tanggal 27, dan Presiden Lincoln menerimanya dengan sigap. Meade benar-benar terkejut dengan pengangkatannya dan enggan menerimanya. Hanya sedikit jika ada orang Amerika yang memiliki begitu banyak tanggung jawab yang dibebankan pada mereka pada saat yang kritis seperti itu. Namun, Meade, seorang prajurit profesional yang benar-benar cakap yang memiliki rasa tanggung jawab yang kuat, memikul beban dan mengambil tindakan segera untuk memindahkan pasukannya ke utara di front yang luas untuk membebaskan Harrisburg sambil menutupi Washington dan Baltimore.

Pada malam tanggal 28 Juni Jenderal Lee, yang berada di Chambersburg, mengetahui dari seorang mata-mata bahwa Tentara Potomac, sekarang di bawah Jenderal Meade, telah melintasi Potomac dan berada di daerah Frederick. Dia segera memutuskan untuk memusatkan pasukannya di timur pegunungan untuk menahan pasukan Union di sana dan mengirim penunggang kuda ke Jenderal Ewell di Carlisle dengan perintah untuk mengembalikan korpsnya segera ke daerah Gettysburg-Cashtown. Ewell, yang hendak mencoba merebut Harrisburg, membatalkan operasi itu dan memerintahkan Jenderal Early di York, Pennsylvania, untuk mengembalikan divisinya ke area perakitan tanpa penundaan. Sementara itu, Ewell mengirim divisi Johnson dan kereta wagonnya kembali ke Chambersburg dan mulai dengan divisi Rodes pada rute langsung menuju Gettysburg.


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SITUASI 30 JUNI 1863, Menjelang PERTEMPURAN
Angkatan Darat Virginia Utara sedang berusaha untuk berkonsentrasi di dekat Cashtown untuk mempersiapkan pertempuran. Hanya empat dari sembilan divisi tentara yang berada di sisi timur pegunungan. Tentara Potomac bergerak ke utara dari Frederick sepanjang hampir tiga puluh mil di depan. Divisi kavaleri Union Buford menduduki Gettysburg pada sore hari, dan Korps Tentara Pertama Reynolds berkemah lima mil di selatan kota. Sisa tentara secara bertahap bergerak ke arah Gettysburg.

Pada tanggal 29 Juni divisi Korps Hill yang dipimpin Mayor Jenderal Henry Heth melintasi South Mountain melalui Cashtown Pass ke dusun Cashtown di kaki timur gunung. Pada tanggal 30 Juni Heth mengirim brigade ke timur delapan mil ke Gettysburg untuk mencari perbekalan, khususnya sepatu, yang dia dengar ada di kota. Ketika dekat Gettysburg, Konfederasi melihat kekuatan yang cukup besar dari kavaleri Union dan kembali ke Cashtown tanpa perlawanan. Pada tanggal 1 Juli Jenderal Hill mengirim divisi Heth, diikuti oleh Mayor Jenderal Dorsey Pender, ke Gettysburg dalam pasukan pengintai.

MAYOR JENDERAL HENRY HETH (GNMP)

Pasukan yang terlihat di dekat Gettysburg pada tanggal 30 Juni adalah pasukan kavaleri dari divisi Angkatan Darat Potomac pimpinan Mayor Jenderal John Buford. Saat tentara itu bergerak ke utara dari daerah Frederick, pasukan Buford menyaring bagian depan kirinya, mengumpulkan informasi tentang tentara Lee untuk Jenderal Meade dan untuk Mayor Jenderal John E. Reynolds, komandan Korps Pertama Union. Buford, seorang perwira kavaleri yang hebat, telah mencapai Gettysburg dengan dua dari tiga brigadenya. Dia menempatkan mereka di busur barat dan utara kota menutupi jalan di mana Konfederasi mungkin mendekat.

Gettysburg pada tahun 1863 adalah kota berpenduduk sekitar 2.400 orang. Itu duduk di tengah-tengah tanah pertanian yang bergulung lembut dengan selimut pedesaan kebun buah-buahan, ladang gandum, padang rumput, dan banyak kayu. Lanskapnya bergelombang di antara pegunungan rendah utara-selatan yang kadang-kadang terhubung ke bukit granit tunggal, dan Rock Creek berbatasan dengan kota di timur. Gettysburg adalah ibukota kabupaten Adams County, dan dapat membanggakan memiliki Pennsylvania College dan seminari Lutheran. Selain itu, itu adalah pusat jaringan jalan dengan jalan tol yang mengarah ke barat ke Chambersburg, timur ke York, dan tenggara ke Baltimore. Delapan jalan lain menuju Harrisburg, Carlisle, Emmitsburg, Taneytown, Hagerstown, Hanover, dan tempat-tempat yang lebih rendah di dekatnya. Sebuah rel kereta api membentang ke timur ke Hanover Junction dan ke Baltimore di luar. Sebuah landasan kereta api telah dibangun di dekat Chambersburg Pike di sebelah barat kota, tetapi tidak memiliki rel.

Tentara Potomac berjumlah sekitar 95.000 perwira dan personel tamtama, semuanya sukarelawan. Itu memiliki tujuh korps infanteri dan artileri, korps kavaleri dan artileri, dan cadangan artileri dari dua puluh satu baterai. Korpsnya secara signifikan lebih kecil dari korps Konfederasi dan rata-rata masing-masing 14.000 perwira dan tamtama tetapi ukurannya berkisar antara 9.800 hingga 17.000. Ada dua puluh dua divisi, dua atau tiga per korps, dibagi menjadi lima puluh sembilan brigade. Brigade infanteri sebanding ukurannya dengan brigade Konfederasi, memiliki kekuatan rata-rata sekitar 1.500 perwira dan pria. Namun, divisi serikat biasanya lebih kecil daripada Angkatan Darat Virginia Utara.

LIEUTENAN JENDERAL AMBROSE P. HILL, KOMANDAN, 3RD ARMY CORPS, ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA (GNMP)

Tentara Meade telah berbaris ke utara dari Frederick di front yang luas, mencari Konfederasi dan meliputi Baltimore dan Washington. Pada tanggal 30 Juni, bagian kiri pasukan Meade berada di dekat Emmitsburg, Maryland, dan bagian kanannya sekitar 25 mil ke timur dekat Manchester. Saat Lee memerintahkan konsentrasi di dekat Gettysburg, Meade bersiap untuk membentuk posisi bertahan di sepanjang Pipe Creek di selatan garis Mason-Dixon. Peristiwa 1 Juli mengubah rencana masing-masing komandan.


Pertempuran Gettysburg

Setelah serangan Heth, ada jeda dalam pertempuran saat pasukan tambahan, biru dan abu-abu, tiba di lapangan. Divisi Mayor Jenderal Dorsey Pender telah mengikuti divisi Heth ke lapangan, dan ketika Hill membentuk divisi Heth di Herr Ridge untuk serangan sore, dia menyelaraskan divisi Pender di belakangnya. Sekitar pukul 11.30 Divisi Abner Doubleday di bawah komando sementara Brig. Jenderal Thomas Rowley tiba. Jenderal Doubleday menempatkan Brigade Pertamanya, yang saat itu dikomandoi oleh Kolonel Chapman Biddle, di sebelah kiri Brigade Besi untuk menutupi celah yang lebar antara Herbst's Woods dan Fairfield Road. Dia menempatkan brigade Kolonel Roy Stone di punggung bukit antara hutan dan tombak. Doubleday menempatkan divisi korps yang tersisa, yaitu Brig. Jenderal John C. Robinson, sebagai cadangan di seminari. Korps Kesebelas Serikat mengikuti Korps Pertama ke lapangan di atas Jalan Taneytown dan Emmitsburg. Mayor Jenderal Oliver O. Howard, komandannya, yang telah kehilangan satu tangan setahun sebelumnya, telah naik ke depan dan mengamati daerah Gettysburg dari atap sebuah bangunan di pusat kota ketika dia mengetahui bahwa Reynolds telah terbunuh. dan bahwa dia memimpin pasukan Union di lapangan. Howard segera mengirim kiriman yang meminta bantuan dan mengambil tindakan untuk melanjutkan pertarungan. Dia mengirim divisi pertama untuk tiba, yaitu Mayor Jenderal Carl Schurz, di utara kota yang bermaksud untuk mengambil posisi di Oak Ridge di sebelah kanan Korps Pertama. Dia mengirim Brig. Divisi Jenderal Francis C. Barlow untuk mendukung Schurz. Dia menempatkan divisi belakangnya, yaitu Brig. Jenderal Adolph von Steinwehr, dan dua baterai artileri di Cemetery Hill untuk menahan bukit itu sebagai titik kumpul jika pasukan Union tidak dapat mempertahankan posisi mereka di luar kota sampai bantuan tiba. Dia berharap Korps Persatuan Kedua Belas dapat membantunya dalam waktu singkat, tetapi dia tahu bahwa pasukan lain tidak dapat datang sampai sore hari.

MAJOR JENDERAL ABNER GANDA (USAMHI)

BRIGADIER JENDERAL ROBERT RODES (GNMP)

Sementara itu, dua divisi Korps Ewell, yang berada di Carlisle dan York, mendekati Gettysburg dari utara. Divisi Rodes berbaris di Carlisle Road, tetapi meninggalkannya untuk maju ke Oak Ridge untuk tiba di lapangan di sebelah kiri Hill's Corps. Divisi awal berbaris menuju kota melalui Harrisburg Road. Howard dan Doubleday mengetahui pendekatan mereka dari pasukan kavaleri Buford yang menjaga jalan di utara kota.

Divisi Rodes dan batalion artileri Letnan Kolonel Thomas H. Carter mencapai Oak Hill sebelum anak buah Schurz dapat mendudukinya. Ketika Doubleday mengetahui pendekatan Rodes, dia mengirim divisi Robinson dari cadangannya untuk menghadapi Rodes dari Seminary Ridge di Mummasburg Road. Divisi Schurz, karena tidak dapat mengambil posisi di ketinggian yang sekarang ditempati oleh Rodes, mengambil posisi menghadap ke utara di dataran utara kota di belakang kanan Korps Pertama. Ewell, yang bersama Rodes, menafsirkan gerakan-gerakan ini sebagai serangan dan pembatalan perintah Jenderal Lee untuk tidak melakukan keterlibatan umum. Dia memerintahkan Rodes untuk menyerang pasukan Union di depannya.

Lee telah mendengar tembakan meriam dari pertempuran pagi itu saat dia berkendara ke timur melalui Cashtown Pass. Dia bergegas ke lapangan dan mencapai garis Hill tepat waktu untuk menyaksikan serangan Ewell. Terlepas dari keinginannya untuk mengumpulkan pasukannya sebelum terlibat dalam "pertunangan umum", pertempuran itu telah dimulai. Dia memberi izin kepada Hill untuk bergabung dengan Ewell dalam serangan itu, masih mengetahui keberadaan bagian dari Pasukan Potomac yang bisa dia lihat di depannya.

MAJOR GENERAL JUBAL AWAL (USAMHI)

Rodes telah membentuk divisinya dalam dua baris Brig. Brigade Jenderal Alfred Iverson berada di bukit dekat lokasi sekarang dari Eternal Light Peace Memorial. Brigade Kolonel Edward A. O'Neal berada di lereng di sebelah kirinya, dan Brigade. Jendral George Doles membentang ke dataran di sebelah timur. Penjara. Jenderal Brigade Junius Daniel dan Stephen Dodson Ramseur menduduki garis dukungan. Rodes memerintahkan mereka untuk menyerang. Iverson dan O'Neal mengarahkan kemajuan mereka dengan buruk. Orang-orang O'Neal mundur sebelum tembakan dari kanan Korps Pertama di sepanjang Jalan Mummasburg dan pasukan kiri Korps Kesebelas. Pasukan Robinson kemudian bergerak ke barat menuju pasukan Iverson yang bergerak membabi buta di tempat terbuka di depan mereka. Mereka mengejutkan Konfederasi dengan tembakan, membunuh, melukai, atau menangkap 800 orang Carolina Utara, dan menghalangi serangan itu. Seorang saksi mata menulis: Garis garis Iverson ditunjukkan oleh barisan mengerikan dari orang-orang mati dan terluka yang darahnya membuntuti garis garis mereka dengan noda merah." Rodes bertahan, bagaimanapun, dan mengirim brigade pendukungnya melawan garis Robinson.

Sekitar pukul 14:30, saat divisi Rodes menyerang dari utara, Lee memberi Heth izin untuk memperbarui serangannya dari barat yang didukung oleh tembakan artileri di Herr Ridge. Ini menjadi salah satu pertarungan perang yang paling mematikan. Meskipun posisi Union di McPherson Ridge dan di McPherson's Woods bagus dalam banyak hal, garis Konfederasi yang lebih panjang mampu bekerja di sekitar Union yang tersisa karena menabrak langsung ke posisi Union dari depan "dengan langkah cepat, berteriak seperti setan." Brigade Besi dalam posisi majunya di hutan rentan di sebelah kirinya dan menekan keras di bagian depannya. Anak buahnya baku tembak dengan brigade Brig. Jenderal James Johnston Pertigrew "sampai barisan saling menjatuhkan satu sama lain pada jarak tidak lebih dari 20 langkah." Brigade Besi mundur, berhenti dan membentuk tiga garis di hutan dan berhenti lagi di lapangan terbuka sebelum mengambil posisi terakhirnya di depan seminari. Brigade Biddle di sebelah kirinya melawan dengan gigih dari tanah terbuka di garis punggungan sampai resimennya terkepung dan dihancurkan dan tidak bisa lagi menahan garis depan ini. Brigade Stone dari Pennsylvanians, yang menghadap ke barat dan utara di sepanjang tombak, diserang baik oleh orang-orang Heth dari barat dan oleh pasukan Rodes, yang menyerang dari utara "dengan paduan suara teriakan yang hebat."


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1 JULI 1863, SIANG
Korps 1 Union telah mengambil posisi untuk mempertahankan pendekatan barat ke Gettysburg, sementara bagian dari Korps ke-11 membentuk utara kota. Howard membentuk cagar alam di Cemetery Hill. Pasukan Konfederasi berkumpul di Gettysburg dari barat, utara dan timur laut, Dari 13:30 sampai 15:30 mereka akan menyerang pertahanan Union dalam pertempuran berdarah, memaksa kedua korps Union untuk mundur ke Cemetery dan Culp's Hills.
Pengabdian pada tugas, kebanggaan, keberanian, dan disiplin menahan orang-orang ini pada jabatan mereka ketika mereka dapat dengan mudah melarikan diri dari lapangan.

Divisi Heth, khususnya brigade besar Pettigrew, memimpin serangan dan menyerap hukuman yang diterapkan oleh para pembela Union. Korban dari Resimen North Carolina ke-26 menceritakan tekad Konfederasi dalam pertarungan ini: empat belas orang ditembak saat membawa warna dan kolonel dan lebih dari setengah dari 800 resimen jatuh. Di pihak Union, Resimen Michigan ke-24 dari Brigade Besi kehilangan 363 dari 496 yang terlibat dalam pertempuran hari itu, brigade ke-151 Pennsylvania dari Biddle 337 dari 467. Pengabdian, pada tugas, kebanggaan, keberanian, dan disiplin membuat orang-orang ini tetap teguh pada pendiriannya. pos ketika mereka bisa dengan mudah melarikan diri dari lapangan. Perilaku seperti itu adalah norma hari itu.

Setelah orang-orang Heth membersihkan pasukan McPherson's Ridge of Union, divisi Pender melewatinya dan mendorong serangan terhadap pasukan Federal yang berkumpul dengan baterainya di belakang payudara di depan gedung-gedung seminari. Brigade Kol. Abner Perrin dari Carolina Selatan dan Brig. North Carolinians pimpinan Jenderal Alfred M. Scales mendorong serangan ke rumah terhadap sisa-sisa Korps Pertama dan sekitar dua puluh senjatanya. Itu adalah urusan berdarah—Perrin menulis bahwa pasukannya bergerak maju dengan berani melawan "api senjata paling merusak yang pernah saya hadapi." Orang-orang Scales, lebih dekat ke tombak, menerima tembakan hebat dari tabung di sisi kiri dan senapan dan tabung dari depan sehingga setelah mereka mengusir Federal dari punggungan, Scales menemukan bahwa "hanya pasukan di sana-sini menandai tempat di mana resimen telah beristirahat."

Sementara itu serangan salah Rodes terhenti di depan divisi Robinson dekat Jalan Mummasburg, tapi itu hanya jeda sesaat. Brigade Daniel dan Ramseur memperbarui serangan dari Oak Hill, dan brigade Doles di depan Korps Kesebelas di dataran utara Gettysburg menerima bantuan tepat waktu dengan kedatangan divisi Awal di Jalan Harrisburg di sebelah kirinya. Saat garis Doles telah maju menuruni poros Carlisle Road melawan divisi kecil Schurz. Divisi Barlow telah terbentuk di utara kota dekat Harrisburg Road dan mengancam akan menyerang sisi Dole. Kedatangan Early membalikkan keadaan. Awal menyelaraskan tiga brigadenya ke kiri Rodes dan berlawanan dengan depan dan sayap Barlow. Serangannya, ditambah dengan dorongan Rodes, menghancurkan Korps Kesebelas yang ditempatkan dengan buruk. Orang-orang awal menghancurkan kanan korps di dekat Jalan Harrisburg dan menekannya kembali ke kota, tidak membiarkannya berubah. Pada saat yang sama, Rodes menyerang Korps Pertama tepat di dekat Jalan Mummasburg dan divisi Pender menyerang barisan Korps Pertama di seminari. Jenderal Robinson memerintahkan Resimen Maine ke-16 untuk menutupi mundurnya Korps Pertama dari posisi Jalan Mummasburg dengan mempertahankan posisinya di sana dengan "biaya apapun". Itu bertahan cukup lama, tetapi biayanya tinggi𤻀 dari 298 orangnya menjadi korban. Khawatir bahwa warna mereka akan ditangkap, orang-orang Maine merobek bendera menjadi potongan-potongan yang masing-masing akan mencoba untuk dibawa pergi.

Setelah pertempuran pagi tanggal 1 Juli, Union Iron Brigade mundur ke tempat perlindungan dan perlindungan hutan milik petani John Herbst. Mereka diserang pada sore hari oleh brigade Jenderal James J. Pettigrew di Carolina Utara. Resimen Letnan William B. Taylor, North Carolina ke-11, secara langsung berhadapan dengan Michigan ke-24, yang dilayani oleh prajurit Roswell I. Root. Konfrontasi itu menghasilkan korban yang mengerikan. Resimen Taylor kehilangan 250 orang dari 550 yang terlibat, dan North Carolina ke-26, yang bertempur di samping resimen ke-11, menderita lebih dari 500 korban dalam pertempuran itu. Michigan ke-24 akan kehilangan 73 persen dari jumlah, termasuk 99 tewas dan terluka parah, korban tewas terbesar di setiap resimen Union dalam Pertempuran Gettysburg. Dalam surat tertulis yang disumpah setelah pertempuran. baik Taylor dan Root menggambarkan perjuangan sengit untuk hutan petani Herbst:

Saya menerima Anda dari tanggal 19 dan Anda dapat yakin bahwa itu sangat memuaskan bagi saya. Saya baik-baik saja dan tidak menerima luka apapun atal. Saya terkena tembakan anggur tetapi memang tahu kerusakan. Hai! kaki kaus kaki saya tertembak & sarung pedang saya terkena sehingga Anda bisa membayangkan seberapa tebal bola itu. Pada hari terakhir bulan Juni, brigade kami bergerak menuju Gettesburg dan ketika di dekat kota kami mendengar bahwa musuh sedang berada di sekitar, jadi kami berbaris kembali sekitar empat mil dan di sana berkemah untuk bermalam dan hari berikutnya divisi kami berbaris menuju kota. Brigade Nona Davis Jenderal di depan kami sehingga mereka membuka pertarungan dan brigade kami membebaskan mereka dan Anda seharusnya melihat brigade kami ketika menyerang, kami mengusir musuh seperti domba. itu melalui lapangan tua yang terbuka dan itu dengan biaya yang mengerikan tetapi kami membayarnya kepada mereka dua kali lipat. Brigade Besi Yankeys mencoba untuk berdiri tetapi tahu gunanya, kami berdiri dalam jarak 20 yard satu sama lain selama sekitar 15 menit tetapi mereka harus menyerah dan ketika mereka [melakukan] kami hanya memotongnya. kami memiliki 8 tewas di lapangan seketika dan 2 terluka yang meninggal sejak hari pertama keluar dari perusahaan kami.

LIEUTENANT WILLIAM B. TAYLOR, PERUSAHAAN B, 11TH NORTH CAROLINA (GNMP)

1 Juli. Rabu pagi yang tak terlupakan kami diperintahkan untuk berbaris dan kami terus berjalan sampai letusan senapan dan deru meriam menghentikan kami. Tapi itu tidak lama sebelum kami terus datang ke musuh tanpa senjata kami dimuat dan mereka volly demi volly ke dalam barisan kami, salah satunya membawa pembawa warna yang mulia turun. Namun kami terus berjalan dan pada saat yang sama memuat senjata kami dan mengantre. Dan kemudian menyerang mereka adalah perintah dan kami menyerang dan menangkap seluruh garis pertempuran mereka, atau sebagian besar. Saya tidak tahu jumlah tahanan tetapi mereka semua digiring ke belakang dan diamankan.

Sejauh ini kami telah memenangkan hari itu, tetapi itu membuat kami kehilangan banyak nyawa, salah satunya adalah Mayor Jenderal Reynolds kami dan yang lainnya yang belum sempat saya sebutkan.

Kami sekarang mundur dalam jarak pendek dan berbaring di hutan [Hutan Herbst] sekitar 3 jam tetapi ada pertempuran kecil di depan sepanjang waktu. Dan sekitar jam 4 sore. kami melihat Rebs mulai berlaku dengan tiga garis pertempuran untuk satu kami dan kami malu diperintahkan untuk berdiri mereka tanpa dukungan baik pasukan atau meriam. Jadi kami berdiri dalam antrean dan menembak selama 20 menit penuh sementara mereka memiliki tiga garis yang menembaki kami. Setelah kami semua dipotong, mereka memerintahkan mundur yang dilakukan dalam kebingungan dan tetapi sedikit yang kembali tanpa goresan dan banyak yang tidak sama sekali.

Benar-benar penurutmu
Anak Agung
R. Akar

Pada saat ini, sekitar pukul 4 sore, Jenderal Howard menyadari bahwa bala bantuan yang diharapkan dari Korps Keduabelas tidak akan tiba tepat waktu. Dia memerintahkan Korps Pertama dan Kesebelas untuk mundur melalui kota ke Cemetery Hill, ketinggian yang naik 100 kaki di atas tepi selatan kota di pangkalannya dan menutupi pintu keluar Jalan Emmitsburg dan Taneytown dan Baltimore Pike. Kedua korps tidak punya pilihan lain. Kalah jumlah dan terkepung, mereka diusir dari posisi mereka di utara dan barat Gettysburg.

Sayangnya, ada beberapa persiapan yang dilakukan untuk retret melalui Gettysburg, tetapi itu bukan kekalahan. Konfederasi, khususnya Korps Hill dan divisi Rodes, telah dianiaya dengan buruk dalam kemenangan mereka dan tidak menekan serangan mereka dengan sepenuh hati. Artileri Federal bergerak melalui kota dengan tertib, beberapa resimen Union, seperti Wisconsin ke-6, melawan tindakan penjaga belakang. Sebagian dari Korps Kesebelas New York ke-45, yang mundurnya telah terputus, melawan di kota sampai perlawanan sia-sia bagi banyak orang, yang kemudian menjadi tahanan. Dan kemudian ada orang-orang yang melarikan diri secara mendadak atau di antara 3.600 tentara Union yang ditangkap hari itu.

Sore harinya, Meade mengirim Mayor Jenderal Winfield S. Hancock, komandan Korps Kedua Union, ke lapangan untuk mengambil alih komando pasukan di sana jika Reynolds tidak mampu. Hancock harus memberi tahu Meade apakah Tentara Potomac harus bertempur di Gettysburg atau mundur ke Pipe Creek. Hancock mencapai Cemetery Hill saat Howard dan Doubleday mengumpulkan pasukan yang kalah di sana. Howard, Doubleday, dan Hancock dengan cepat menempatkan sisa pasukan Union, mungkin 9.000 orang, di Cemetery Hill. Sebagian besar artileri dari dua korps Union, sekitar empat puluh senjata, segera siap untuk mempertahankan bukit. Tapi Korps Hill tampaknya tidak dalam kondisi untuk menekan serangan seperti itu. Lee menyerahkan keputusan kepada Ewell, dan Ewell, yang tidak dapat memperkirakan bantuan dari Hill dan hanya memiliki dua brigade di tangan untuk pekerjaan itu, dengan bijaksana memutuskan untuk tidak menyerang pasukan Union di atas bukit. Pertempuran 1 Juli telah berakhir. Konfederasi telah memenangkan hari itu tetapi bukan kemenangan yang menentukan. Lebih banyak pertempuran terbentang di depan.


Isi

Tentara Lee memenangkan pertempuran penting di Chancellorsville di Virginia pada Mei 1863. [10] Setelah itu, ia memimpin pasukannya ke utara melalui Lembah Shenandoah. Rencananya adalah memulai invasi keduanya ke Utara (disebut Kampanye Gettysburg). [10] Lee memiliki beberapa tujuan dalam pikirannya. [10] Dia bermaksud mengambil Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, ibu kota negara bagian. [10] Ini, dia berharap, akan mempermalukan pemerintahan Lincoln [10] dan memaksa politisi Utara untuk menyerah perang. Pada titik ini, Lee sedang bermain politik. [10] Dia tahu bahwa jika dia berhasil di Pennsylvania, itu akan mendorong gerakan perdamaian Utara. Dia berharap akan mendapat pengakuan asing untuk Konfederasi. [10] Itu juga bisa memaksa Uni untuk bernegosiasi untuk perdamaian, yang memungkinkan negara-negara Konfederasi menjadi negara merdeka. [10] Lee sangat membutuhkan persediaan dan bermaksud mendapatkannya di Pennsylvania. [b] Selain menjadi ibu kota negara bagian, Harrisburg juga merupakan lokasi Camp Curtin, kamp pelatihan terbesar bagi tentara Union. [13] Itu adalah pusat kereta api utama. [13] Lebih penting lagi itu adalah depot pasokan utama dan juga kamp tawanan perang. [14]

Di Utara, Lincoln memberi tahu Mayor Jenderal Joseph Hooker agar tentara Union mengikuti tentara Lee. [9] Tapi Hooker sangat enggan untuk mengejar Konfederasi. Akhirnya, Lincoln kehilangan semua kepercayaan padanya. [9] Pada tanggal 28 Juni, tiga hari sebelum Pertempuran Gettysburg, Lincoln menunjuk Jenderal Meade untuk menggantikan Hooker. [9] Seandainya Konfederasi menang, pasukan konfederasi akan memiliki akses ke Philadelphia atau Baltimore. [15] Wakil Presiden Hannibal Hamlin pergi ke Lincoln untuk membahas perdagangan tawanan perang lima hari sebelum Pertempuran Gettysburg. [15]

Baik Lee maupun Meade tidak menginginkan pertempuran terjadi di Gettysburg dan tidak juga di sana ketika pertempuran dimulai. [16] Pada tanggal 30 Juni 1863, Jenderal Konfederasi Henry Heth memiliki divisi di Cashtown, Pennsylvania, tempat berkumpulnya Lee sebelum pindah ke Harrisburg. Heth mengirim divisinya ke Gettysburg terdekat untuk mencari, seperti yang kemudian dia tulis dalam laporannya, "persediaan tentara (terutama sepatu), dan kembali pada hari yang sama." [17] Ini memulai mitos bahwa Pertempuran Gettysburg dimulai dari sepatu. [c] [17] Heth melakukan ini tanpa melihat ke depan untuk melihat apa yang ada di Gettysburg. Pekerjaan kepanduan milik kavaleri Konfederasi di bawah J.E.B. Stuart. [17] Tapi mereka telah pergi selama lebih dari seminggu. [17] Jadi, buta terhadap apa yang ada di depan mereka, tentaranya langsung berlari ke divisi kavaleri Union yang dipimpin oleh Jenderal John Buford. [16] Ini memulai pertempuran meskipun Heth dan komandan lainnya berada di bawah perintah dari Lee untuk tidak memulai pertempuran. [17] Tapi, karena masing-masing pihak membawa lebih banyak pasukan, itu menjadi pertempuran skala penuh. [16] Lee mulai memindahkan banyak pasukannya ke sana. Salah satu tujuannya adalah untuk melawan tentara Union dan menghancurkannya. Sekarang, dia harus melakukannya di Gettysburg.

Sekitar pukul 5.30 pagi pada tanggal 1 Juli, pertempuran dimulai. Heth menyelidiki ke depan dengan hati-hati ke titik sekitar dua mil sebelah barat Gettysburg. [20] Buford's cavalry was deliberately slowing his progress. At about 10 a.m. the Union I Corps arrived commanded by General John F. Reynolds. [20] They set themselves up along McPherson's Ridge to oppose Heth's Confederates. During the fighting Reynolds was killed but the Confederates were driven back. Meanwhile, both sides brought up reinforcements. [20] The Union set up defenses of the town with I Corps defending the western approaches with XI Corps to the north. The flanks were covered by Buford's cavalry. One Union division was held in reserve on Cemetery Ridge. In the afternoon, when Lee arrived, the Confederates still did not know the strength of the Union forces they were facing. [20] They also had not scouted the terrain. [20] One division of Ewell's Corps had attacked the Union I Corps just after noon. [20] At about 2 p.m. Heth's division joined Ewell's troops in the attack on I Corps. [20] At about 3 p.m., another of Ewell's Confederate divisions, commanded by General Jubal Early, attacked the flank of the Union XI Corps. [20] By 4 p.m., both of the Union corps retreated through Gettysburg and took up positions on Cemetery Ridge. [20] So far, the Union had lost about 9,000 men including about 3,000 who had been captured. [20] The Confederates had lost about 6,500 men by this point. [20] So the first day of battle was technically a Confederate victory numbers-wise. But Federal troops held the high ground as more reinforcements were still arriving. [20] Based on the first day's fighting, Lee was convinced he could defeat Meade at Gettysburg. [20]

Late in the day, Lee sent the famous order to Confederate General Richard S. Ewell to take cemetery ridge "if practicable.” [d] [10] While he had been awaiting orders from Lee, Ewell had ridden out to take a closer look at Cemetery Ridge. [23] Based on what he saw and the confusing order, he decided it was not practicable to take the hill and set up camp. [22] Instead, he decided to leave the assault for the next day. This was the first major mistake of the battle for the South. The Army of the Potomac would end the day with around 21,900 men strongly positioned on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Ridge. The Army of Northern Virginia would have around 27,000 men from Benner's Hill to Seminary Ridge.

On the second day of battle, most of both armies had arrived. The Union line held the high ground in a defensive formation that looked like a fishhook. On July 2, Lee ordered General James Longstreet, commander of the Confederate I Corps, to attack the Union left flank as early in the day as possible. [24] At the same time General A. P. Hill's corps was to attack the Union center. [24] General Ewell was to make diversionary attacks and "if practicable" attack the Union Army's right flank. [24] Lee felt that if everything went according to his plan and the Union line was destroyed, the battle, and possibly the war, would be won on the second day. [24] Lee's coordinated attack required getting all the infantry into position and moving up artillery to support them. [25] Longstreet had the furthest to go and midway in their march realized the Union lines could see them. They went back and had to take a different route. [25] Longstreet could not get his corps into position until about 4 p.m. when he began his attack. [25] His attack on the Union line lasted for over three hours but could not break the Union line. [25] Hill's Corps failed to be effective in the center. [25] Ewell did not attack Cemetery Ridge as instructed in Lee's confusing order, but made some progress in taking Culp's Hill. [25]

Union Major General Daniel Sickles, a political general commanding III Corps, disobeyed Meade's orders and moved his troops forward to the Peach Orchard. [26] He had been ordered to take up a position on Little Round Top connecting with Union forces on both his right and left. By doing this he left a large hole in the Union line. He marched to a position nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) in front of the Union line with no support on either side. [27] Within an hour, his entire III Corps was nearly wiped out by Longstreet. [27] Sickles was badly wounded by a cannonball and lost a leg. Being wounded was all that saved him from a court-martial. [27] Sickles' blunder nearly lost the entire battle for the Union. [28]

On the night of July 2, Longstreet's largest division commanded by General George Pickett arrived and was placed in the center of the Confederate line. Lee's plan for the next day was to attack on both the Union right and left, just as he had done the day before. [29] Lee was still certain he could break the Union line and win the battle. [29] That day Stuart's cavalry had caught up with Lee's army and Lee ordered Stuart to ride around the East side of Gettysburg and attack the Union rear. [29] Ewell had also been reinforced and was ordered to take Culp's Hill the next morning. [29]

Meade ordered the Union XII Corps to drive Ewell's forces off the captured trenches on Culp's Hill. [29] They were to move at daylight the next morning. [29] He was determined the remainder of the Union Army would hold its position and wait for Lee to attack. [29]

Ewell began fighting on Culp's Hill at first light. [29] Lee rode to Longstreet's headquarters only to find Longstreet had misunderstood his orders. [29] He was planning a turning movement against the Union left. Now, with no hope of a coordinated attack, Lee changed the plan. Longstreet was to attack the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. Ewell's forces failed in their counterattacks and were forced to withdraw from Culp's Hill by about 11:00 a.m. [29] Lee pinned all his hopes on Longstreet's attack on the center. [30] Longstreet had the last fresh division in Lee's army. [30] It was made up of three brigades, commanded by generals James L. Kemper, Richard B. Garnett, and Lewis A. Armistead, led by Pickett. [30]

Cannons Edit

First, a bombardment by about 140 Confederate cannons on the Union lines was ordered. [29] The bombardment started about 1 p.m. [31] About 80 Union cannons returned fire. [32] The cannons duel lasted for between one and two hours, depending on the source (most say about an hour). [31] The Confederate artillery chief, General Edward Porter Alexander, had only intended it to last for about 25 minutes. [31] But he then realized it had done little damage to the Union line so he continued. [31] But he also had to worry about running out of ammunition and not have enough to support the charge that was Pickett was about to make. [31] When the Union guns fell silent, Porter thought he had knocked them out. [31] But it was a trick by the Union artillery chief. [31] His guns were waiting for the charge the Union forces knew was coming. Alexander sent word to Pickett he could start his attack.

The cannonade could be heard as far away as Philadelphia. [33] The noise was so loud the gunner's ears bled. [34] It was probably the loudest noise that had ever been heard on the North American continent up to that time. [33] In the end the Confederate cannons may have killed as many as 200 Union soldiers in the area that would later become known as the "bloody angle". [31] But the Union guns may have killed more Confederate troops. [31]

Pickett's Charge Edit

Calling the Confederate attack on the Union center "Pickett's Charge" is misleading for two reasons. [35] First, Pickett commanded only one of the three units in the assault. [35] Second, it was not a charge, which is a rapid advance towards the enemy, it was an attack which moved forward more slowly and over a longer distance. [35] These Virginia units were joined by several smaller units of Confederates (some from North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama) whose numbers had been reduced by the fighting over the first two days. [30] When the cannons stopped, Pickett went to Longstreet to ask permission to begin the attack. [34] Longstreet, sure the attack would fail, silently nodded his head and gave a wave of his hand. [34] Longstreet had tried to get Lee to call off the attack, but Lee would not listen. [34]

Over 12,000 Confederates stepped out from the trees and formed up for the long march forward. [34] Waiting for them behind a low stone fence on Cemetery Ridge were about 5,000 Union troops, most of whom belonged to General Winfield Scott Hancock's II Corps. [30] Depending on the source, this was between 2:00 and 3:00 p.m. [30] As they marched forward across the 1 mile (1.6 km) distance, Union artillery killed large numbers of troops. [36] Rifle fire from the Union line was intense. The Union troops used four lines of soldiers. [35] As the line in front fired, they moved back to reload while the next line moved up to fire. [35] Only a few hundred of the Virginians reached the Union line. Within minutes they were dead or dying. [36] Some were captured. The attack lasted about an hour with over 7,000 Confederate soldiers killed. [36] As the remaining Confederate troops retreated, Lee was seen riding his horse saying "this was all my fault". [37] He then told Pickett to rally his division. Pickett famously replied, "General, I have no division." [37]

At about the same time as the main attack, Stuart's cavalry attacked the Union rear but the attack also failed. [38]

Lee brought an army into Pennsylvania that numbered 75,054 men and lost 22,638 casualties or about 30% of his army. [39] Meade lost so many field grade officers that the Army of the Potomac would not recover for the rest of the war. [39] Both the Union I Corps and III Corps lost so many men they had to be combined with II Corps. [39] The battle took more American lives than any other battle in United States history. Gettysburg is still the largest battle to ever be fought on American soil. The Union victory over the Confederacy ended Lee's invasion of the north. Lee would never try to invade the Union again. The Army of Northern Virginia would never get their strength back. However the supplies taken during their time in Pennsylvania would keep the Confederate army going. [40] The wagon train of supply wagons and ambulances for the wounded was over 17 miles (27 km) long. [40] Lee never had more than 51,000 men the rest of the war. Numbers from the Union forces wore down Lee and his army. This is why Gettysburg is said to be the turning point of the American Civil War. After the battle the confederates figured out that there was a slave spy. [41]

Meade was severely criticized for not counterattacking Lee after the third day of battle. The next day Meade sent out skirmishers, but did not attack. [42] Lee had his army hold its position on Seminary Ridge all day on July 4. The more than 10,000 wounded men would be moved by wagon train 40 miles (64 km) to Williamsport and cross the Potomac to Virginia. The rest of Lee's army followed on the night of July 4–5, screened by Jeb Stuart's cavalry. [42] The next day, on discovering the Confederates had left the battlefield, the Union army cautiously followed. At the Battle of Falling Waters, Lee's army was waiting for the flooded Potomac River to go down so his army could cross. Meade's forces caught up with them there but the battle had no clear victor. The Battle of Falling Waters was the last battle in the Gettysburg Campaign. [43]


16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment

The 16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment was organized for one year’s service at Raleigh as the 6th Infantry Regiment Volunteers under the command of Colonel Stephen Lee, Lieutenant Colonel Robert G.A. Love, and Major Benjamin F. Briggs.

Company A – Jackson County – Captain Andrew W. Coleman
Company B – Madison County – Captain John Peek
Company C – Yancey County – Captain John S. McElroy
Company D – Rutherford County – Captain Herbert D. Lee
Company E – Burke County – “Burke Tigers” – Captain Elijah J. Kirksey
Company F – Buncombe County – Captain Patrick H. Thrash
Company G – Rutherford County – Captain Champion T.N. Davis
Company H – Macon County – Captain Thomas M. Angel
Company I – Henderson County – Captain William M. Shipp
Company K – Polk County – “Carolina Boys” – Captain John C. Camp
Company L – Haywood County – Captain Elisha G. Johnston
Company M – Gaston County – Captain William A. Stowe

Cheat Mountain
Siege of Yorktown

The regiment was reorganized for the duration of the war. Company N (“Rutherford Rifles” – Rutherford County) was added. Captain Champion T.N. Davis of Company G was elected colonel, Captain John S. McElroy of Company C was elected lieutenant colonel, and Captain William Stowe of Company M was elected major.

The new company officers were:
Company A -Captain James R. Love
Company B – Captain Solomon W. Carter
Company C – Captain Creed F. Young
Company D – Captain Adolphus A. McKinney
Company E – Captain Elijah J. Kirksey (reected)
Company F – Captain Henry C. Worley
Company G – Captain Lawson Pinkney Erwin
Company H – Captain James L. Robinson
Company I – Captain William B. Whitaker
Company K – Captain John C. Camp (reelected)
Company L – Captain Alden G. Howell
Company M – Captain Leroy W. Stowe
Company N – James W. Kilpatrick (reelected)

Pertempuran Tujuh Pinus

Colonel Davis was killed. Lieutenant Colonel McElroy was promoted to colonel and Major Stowe to lieutenant colonel.

Company M was transferred to the 56th North Carolina Infantry Regiment as Company I.

Seven Days Battles

The regiment lost lost 33 men killed and 199 wounded in the week’s fighting.

Beaver Dam Creek
Battle of Gaines’ Mill
Frayser’s Farm

Captain Andrew W. Coleman, of Company A was killed. Lieutenant A.W. Bryson took command until he was wounded, and the company ended the battle under the command of Sergeant John S. Keener.

Pertempuran Gunung Cedar
Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

The regiment lost 8 men killed and 44 wounded.

Battle of Ox Hill (Chantilly)

Crossed the Potomac River.

Reached Frederick, Maryland.

Capture of Harpers Ferry
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William A. Stowe.

From the War Department marker for Pender’s Brigade along Harpers Ferry Road at Antietam:

Pender’s Brigade left Harpers Ferry at 7:30 A.M. of September 17, crossed the Potomac by Blackford’s Ford and reached this road about 3 P.M. It was placed in position near this point to guard the approaches to the battlefield from the lower Antietam. It was exposed to the long range Infantry and Artillery fire of the enemy but was not otherwise actively engaged.

Late in the day it was moved to the left, and on the morning of the 18th, took position on the left of Branch’s Brigade, where it remained until it was withdrawn to recross the Potomac.

Shepherdstown Ford
Pertempuran Fredericksburg

The regiment lost 6 men killed and 48 wounded. Colonel MeElroy was wounded and disabled. Lieutenant Colonel Stowe was promoted to colonel.

Battle of Chancellorsville

The regiment lost 105 casualties. Colonel Stowe was wounded.

Pertempuran Gettysburg

The regiment was commanded at Gettysburg by Captain Leroy W. Stowe. It brought 321 men to the field and lost 72 casualties.

From the monument to Scales’ Brigade on the Gettysburg battlefield:

July 1. Crossed Willoughby Run about 3.30 P. M. relieving Heth’s line and advancing with left flank on Chambersburg Pike took part in the struggle until it ended. When the Union forces made their final stand on Seminary Ridge the Brigade charged and aided in dislodging them but suffered heavy losses. Gen. A. M. Scales was wounded and all the field officers but one were killed or wounded.

July 2. In position near here with skirmishers out in front and on flank.

July 3. In Longstreet’s assault the Brigade supported the right wing of Pettigrew’s Division. With few officers to lead them the men advanced in good order through a storm of shot and shell and when the front line neared the Union works they pushed forward to aid it in the final struggle and were among the last to retire.

July 4. After night withdrew and began the march to Hagerstown.


Union General Abner Doubleday Forever Seethed About ‘Unfair Treatment’ At Gettysburg

The Battle of Gettysburg stood supreme in its ability to spark postwar controversies among officers in both the Confederate and Union high commands. Infighting among former generals of the Army of Northern Virginia has garnered the most attention from historians, resulting in a sizable literature that features James Longstreet playing villain to Jubal A. Early and other Lost Cause warriors who sought to absolve Robert E. Lee of all responsibility for defeat. J.E.B. Stuart, Richard S. Ewell, and A.P. Hill held supporting roles in these long-running debates that filled many pages in the Southern Historical Society Papers, personal memoirs, and other publications.

On the United States side, Maj. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles’ decision on July 2 to abandon his position on Cemetery Ridge and occupy a line stretching from the Klingel Farm along the Emmitsburg Road to Devil’s Den generated the most acrimony. Congress helped fuel the fires among Union generals because the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War solicited and published testimony from many of the key actors.

Few officers on either side nursed a deeper sense of grievance than Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday. New York-born and a graduate of West Point in 1842, he fought as an artillerist during the war with Mexico. During the secession crisis, he served under Major Robert Anderson as a captain in the 1st U.S. Artillery stationed at Fort Sumter. He commanded the 2nd Division in Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds’ 1st Corps at Fredericksburg and, in the spring of 1863, took charge of the 3rd Division in that corps and led it at Chancellorsville (his troops played insignificant roles in both battles). Still head of the 3rd Division on July 1 at Gettysburg, he assumed corps command after Reynolds’ wounding and led it for the rest of the day.

That evening, based largely on 11th Corps commander Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard’s reporting to Winfield Scott Hancock that “Doubleday’s command gave way” during the chaotic late- afternoon fighting, army commander George G. Meade placed the 1st Corps under John Newton. Seething at what he considered unfair treatment (Newton was junior to him in rank), Doubleday returned to the 3rd Division for the rest of the battle but soon left the Army of the Potomac. He never held another field command during the war, spending much of his time on courts-martial in Washington, D.C.

Howard and Meade had incurred the New Yorker’s enduring wrath, a fact made evident in Doubleday’s Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. Written as part of Scribner’s “Campaigns of the Civil War” series and published in 1882, the book bristled with criticism of the pair. Especially upset with Howard’s unfair insinuation that the 1st Corps collapsed prior to the retreat of the 11th Corps on July 1, Doubleday observed: “General Howard hastened to send a special messenger to General Meade with the baleful intelligence that the 1st Corps had fled from the field at the first contact with the enemy….[T]his astounding news created the greatest feeling against the corps, who were loudly cursed for their supposed lack of spirit and patriotism.” Doubleday also averred that Reynolds, rather than Howard, deserved credit for selecting Cemetery Hill as a position of great strength.

Maj. Gen. Abner Doubelday briefly took over the Army of the Potomac’s 1st Corps at Gettysburg after Maj. Gen. John Reynolds was killed on the morning of July 1, 1863, pictured here. (Niday Picture Library/Alamy Stock Photo)

As for Meade, Doubleday portrayed him as timid and eager to abandon the field after the second day’s action. “At night a council of war was held,” he wrote with clear malice, “in which it was unanimously voted to stay and fight it out. Meade was displeased with the result, and although he acquiesced in the decision, he said angrily, ‘Have it your own way, gentlemen, but Gettysburg is no place to fight a battle in.’”

The army’s new chief, added Doubleday, had been rattled by the fierce Confederate attacks on July 2 and “thought it better to retreat with what he had, than run the risk of losing all.” Doubleday buttressed his version of events with a long footnote that acknowledged a “public discussion” about Meade’s intentions on the night of the 2nd. “There is no question in my mind,” he reiterated in the note, “that, at the council referred to, General Meade did desire to retreat….” The aftermath of Pickett’s Charge, Doubleday suggested, similarly showed Meade’s indecisiveness. At the critical moment at Waterloo, the Duke of Wellington had ordered, “Up, guards, and at them!” In contrast, “General Meade had made no arrangements to give a return thrust.”

Howard surely knew about Doubleday’s vituperative comments but chose not to respond in his own memoirs. Published in two thick volumes in 1907 as Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, Major General United States Army, they mentioned Doubleday’s actions at Gettysburg in purely descriptive passages. After chronicling hard pressure on both the 1st and 11th Corps after 3:30 p.m. on July 1, Howard stated simply that with firing “growing worse and worse” he determined that the “front lines could not hold out much longer.” “I will not attempt to describe the action further…,” he continued. “The order I sent to Doubleday then was this: ‘If you cannot hold out longer, you must fall back to the cemetery and take position on the left of the Baltimore Pike.’”

Meade reacted with more emotion. Doubleday’s testimony before the Joint Committee, which anticipated criticisms he leveled in Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, spurred Meade to complain to his wife in early March 1864 about “the explosion of the conspiracy to have me relieved…in which the Committee on the Conduct of the War, with Generals Doubleday and Sickles, are the agents.” The two-volume edition of Meade’s letters, published in 1913, included as an appendix a newspaper article by Sickles printed in The New York Times on April 1, 1883, that detailed Meade’s “Proposed Retreat on the Night of the 2nd of July.” Another appendix offered a stinging reply to Doubleday’s version of events, pronouncing General Meade’s actions “utterly inconsistent…with any such intention as that ascribed to him by General Doubleday.”

Impartial observers can find admirable and self-interested behavior and statements from Doubleday, Meade, and Howard regarding Gettysburg. Modern visitors to the battlefield will find statues to all three men that face resolutely toward the enemy.


Scales’ Brigade

The brigade was commanded at the Battle of Gettysburg by Brigadier General Alfred Scales, a North Carolina lawyer and politician.

On July 1st it took part in a costly charge against the final Union line on Seminary Ridge. General Scales was badly wounded in the leg and every field officer in the brigade except two were killed or wounded.

The brigade was left in reserve on July 2nd, but on the 3rd it was included in the attack that came to be known as Pickett’s Charge. Colonel William L.J. Lowrance of the 34th North Carolina Infantry led the brigade in the charge. He had also had been wounded on the 1st, but not as severely as Scales.

Lanes’ and Scales’ brigades together could field no more than 800 men for the assault. Many were wounded to some extent. Nevertheless Scales’ North Carolinians made one of the furthest advances of the charge, leading to a controversy with Pickett’s Virginians over who went the farthest at Gettysburg which goes on to this day.

Text from the monument

July 1. Crossed Willoughby Run about 3.30 P. M. relieving Heth’s line and advancing with left flank on Chambersburg Pike took part in the struggle until it ended. When the Union forces made their final stand on Seminary Ridge the Brigade charged and aided in dislodging them but suffered heavy losses. Gen. A. M. Scales was wounded and all the field officers but one were killed or wounded.

July 2. In position near here with skirmishers out in front and on flank.

July 3. In Longstreet’s assault the Brigade supported the right wing of Pettigrew’s Division. With few officers to lead them the men advanced in good order through a storm of shot and shell and when the front line neared the Union works they pushed forward to aid it in the final struggle and were among the last to retire.

July 4. After night withdrew and began the march to Hagerstown.


The Battle of Gettysburg ended JULY 3, 1863

American Minute with Bill Federer

Washington, D.C., was in a panic!

72,000 Confederate troops were just sixty miles away near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

What led up to this Battle?

After the Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee was under a time deadline.

Mounting casualties of the war were causing Lincoln’s popularity to fall, so if Lee could get a quick victory at Gettysburg, he could pressure Lincoln to a truce.

But this window of opportunity was fast closing, as Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was about to capture Vicksburg on the Mississippi, which would divide the Confederacy and free up thousands of Union troops to fight Lee in the east.

Unfortunately for Lee, his tremendously successful General, “Stonewall” Jackson, had died two months earlier, having been mistakenly shot by his own men.

On the Union side, Lincoln replaced Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker with Maj. Gen. George Meade to command the 94,000 men of the Union Army of the Potomac.

The Battle of Gettysburg began July 1, 1863.

After two days of intense combat, with ammunition running low, General Robert E. Lee ordered a direct attack.

Confederate General James Longstreet disagreed with Lee’s plan resulting in his delayed advance till after all the Confederate artillery had been spent, leaving no cover fire.

Historians speculate that if General Longstreet had made a timely attack, the Confederates may have won the day.

As it happened, 12,500 Confederate soldiers marched across a mile of open field without artillery cover to make “Pickett’s Charge” directly into the Union position at Cemetery Ridge.

An hour of murderous fire and bloody hand-to-hand combat ensued, followed by the Confederates being pushed back.

The Battle of Gettysburg ended JULY 3, 1863, with over 50,000 casualties.

The next day, Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, giving the Union Army control of the Mississippi River.

When news reached London, all hopes of Europe recognizing the Confederacy were lost.

For the next two years, the South was on the defensive.

On July 5, 1863, President Lincoln and his son visited General Daniel E. Sickles, who had his leg blown off at Gettysburg.

General James F. Rusling recorded that when General Sickles asked Lincoln if he was anxious before the Battle, Lincoln answered:

“No, I was not some of my Cabinet and many others in Washington were, but I had no fears …”

“In the pinch of your campaign up there, when everybody seemed panic-stricken, and nobody could tell what was going to happen, oppressed by the gravity of our affairs, I went to my room one day,

and I locked the door, and got down on my knees before Almighty God, and prayed to Him mightily for victory at Gettysburg.

I told Him that this was His war, and our cause His cause, but we couldn’t stand another Fredericksburg or Chancellorsville.

And I then and there made a solemn vow to Almighty God, that if He would stand by our boys at Gettysburg, I would stand by Him …”

“And He did stand by you boys, and I will stand by Him.

And after that (I don’t know how it was, and I can’t explain it), soon a sweet comfort crept into my soul that God Almighty had taken the whole business into his own hands and that things would go all right at Gettysburg.”

Twelve days after the Battle of Gettysburg, July 15, 1863, Lincoln proclaimed a Day of Prayer:

“It is meet and right to recognize and confess the presence of the Almighty Father and the power of His hand equally in these triumphs and in these sorrows …

I invite the people of the United States to … render the homage due to the Divine Majesty for the wonderful things He has done in the nation’s behalf and invoke the influence of His Holy Spirit to subdue the anger which has produced and so long sustained a needless and cruel rebellion.”

In his Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln ended:

“We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom —

and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

Years later at the Gettysburg Battlefield, President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated May 30, 1934:

“On these hills of Gettysburg two brave armies of Americans once met in contest …

Since those days, two subsequent wars, both with foreign Nations, have measurably … softened the ancient passions.

It has been left to us of this generation to see the healing made permanent.”

President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated, September 17, 1937:

“I came into the world 17 years after the close of the war between the States … Today … there are still many among us who can remember it …

It serves us little to discuss again the rights and the wrongs of the long 4-years’ war … We can but wish that the war had never been. We can and we do revere the memory of the brave men who fought on both sides …

But we know today that it was best … for the generations of Americans who have come after them, that the conflict did not end in a division of our land into two nations.

I like to think that it was the will of God that we remain one people.”

At the Confederate Memorial in Arlington Cemetery, President Coolidge said, May 25, 1924:

“It was Lincoln who pointed out that both sides prayed to the same God. When that is the case, it is only a matter of time when each will seek a common end.

We can now see clearly what that end is. It is the maintenance of our American ideals, beneath a common flag, under the blessings of Almighty God.”

In his 3rd Inaugural Address, President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, January 20, 1941:

“The spirit of America … is the product of centuries … born in the multitudes of those who came from many lands …

Aspirasi demokrasi bukan hanya fase baru dalam sejarah manusia. It is human history …

Its vitality was written into our own Mayflower Compact, into the Declaration of Independence, into the Constitution of the United States, into the Gettysburg Address …

If the spirit of America were killed, even though the Nation’s body … lived on, the America we know would have perished.”

Self-Educated American Contributing Editor, William J. Federer, is the bestselling author of “Backfired: A Nation Born for Religious Tolerance no Longer Tolerates Religion,” and numerous other books. A frequent radio and television guest, his daily American Minute is broadcast nationally via radio, television, and Internet. Check out all of Bill’s books here.


Battle of Gettysburg Ends: On This Day, July 3

The Battle of Gettysburg, fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, from July 1 to July 3, 1863, ended with a victory for Union General George Meade and the Army of the Potomac.

The three-day battle was the bloodiest in the war, with approximately 51,000 casualties. Even with such heavy losses, it proved to be a significant victory for the Union. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, under General Robert E. Lee, had invaded Union territory and was moving through southern Pennsylvania with an eye to Harrisburg, the state capital. General Lee hoped that defeating the Union army in a large battle on Northern territory would deliver a great, perhaps final blow to the war-weary United States. But the Union victory effectively ended the Confederate invasion of the North and provided a much-needed boost of morale for US soldiers and civilians alike.

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought not only on the field, but on the streets of Gettysburg as well. On July 1, Confederate soldiers chased retreating Union soldiers through the town, then looted homes and cellars for valuables, clothing, and food. Despite this initial Union retreat, the battle ended on July 3 with Pickett’s Charge, in which a force of 15,000 Confederate soldiers charged through open fields at Union lines but failed to break through them.

In this video, take a virtual tour of the battlefield with historian Matthew Pinsker, Associate Professor of History and Pohanka Chair in American Civil War History, Dickinson College, as he provides a guide to the battle’s most important locations.


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Komentar:

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