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4 Raja Keluarga Windsor Berurutan

4 Raja Keluarga Windsor Berurutan


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House of Windsor baru terbentuk pada tahun 1917, dan selama sekitar 100 tahun terakhir, ia telah melihat semuanya: perang, krisis konstitusional, skandal hubungan cinta, dan perceraian yang berantakan. Namun, itu tetap menjadi salah satu konstanta abadi dalam sejarah Inggris modern, dan Keluarga Kerajaan saat ini tetap dihormati secara luas di seluruh negeri.

Dengan sedikit kekuatan atau pengaruh politik nyata yang tersisa, House of Windsor telah beradaptasi untuk tetap relevan di dunia yang terus berubah: kombinasi yang kuat antara tradisi dan perubahan telah menyebabkan popularitas dan kelangsungan hidupnya yang luar biasa meskipun berbagai macam kemunduran.

Penulis dan penyiar Hugo Vickers hadir di acara itu untuk menyortir fakta dari fiksi tentang serial hit Netflix 'The Crown'.

Menonton sekarang

George V (1910-36)

Seorang raja yang pemerintahannya membentang perubahan besar di seluruh Eropa, George V mengganti nama House of Saxe-Coburg dan Gotha menjadi House of Windsor pada tahun 1917 sebagai akibat dari sentimen anti-Jerman. George lahir pada tahun 1865, putra kedua Edward, Pangeran Wales. Sebagian besar masa mudanya dihabiskan di laut, dan dia kemudian bergabung dengan Angkatan Laut Kerajaan, hanya pergi pada tahun 1892, setelah kakak laki-lakinya, Pangeran Albert, meninggal karena radang paru-paru.

Begitu George langsung menjadi pewaris takhta, hidupnya agak berubah. Dia menikahi Putri Mary of Teck, dan mereka memiliki enam anak bersama. George juga menerima gelar lebih lanjut, termasuk Duke of York, memiliki bimbingan dan pendidikan ekstra, dan mulai mengambil tugas publik yang lebih serius.

George dan Mary dimahkotai pada tahun 1911, dan kemudian pada tahun yang sama, pasangan itu mengunjungi India untuk Delhi Durbar, di mana mereka juga secara resmi disajikan sebagai Kaisar dan Permaisuri India - George adalah satu-satunya raja yang benar-benar mengunjungi India selama Raj.

Perang Dunia Pertama bisa dibilang peristiwa yang menentukan pemerintahan George, dan Keluarga Kerajaan sangat prihatin dengan sentimen anti-Jerman. Untuk membantu menenangkan publik, Raja mengganti nama keluarga Kerajaan Inggris dan meminta kerabatnya untuk melepaskan nama atau gelar yang terdengar seperti Jerman, menangguhkan gelar bangsawan Inggris untuk kerabat pro-Jerman dan bahkan menolak suaka untuk sepupunya, Tsar Nicholas II, dan kerabatnya. keluarga setelah deposisi mereka pada tahun 1917.

George V dan Tsar Nicholas II bersama-sama di Berlin, pada tahun 1913.

Ketika monarki Eropa jatuh sebagai akibat dari revolusi, perang, dan perubahan rezim politik, Raja George menjadi semakin khawatir tentang ancaman sosialisme, yang disamakan dengan republikanisme. Dalam upaya untuk memerangi sikap acuh tak acuh kerajaan, dan untuk lebih terlibat dengan 'orang normal', Raja membina hubungan positif dengan Partai Buruh, dan melakukan upaya untuk melintasi batas kelas dengan cara yang tidak terlihat sebelumnya.

Bahkan di awal 1930-an, dikatakan bahwa George khawatir tentang kekuatan Nazi Jerman yang semakin besar, menasihati para duta besar untuk waspada dan berbicara dengan jelas tentang kekhawatirannya tentang perang lain di cakrawala. Setelah tertular septikemia pada tahun 1928, kesehatan Raja tidak pernah pulih sepenuhnya, dan dia meninggal pada tahun 1936 setelah suntikan mematikan morfin dan kokain dari dokternya.

Edward VIII (1936)

Putra tertua Raja George V dan Mary of Teck, Edward mendapatkan reputasi sebagai playboy di masa mudanya. Tampan, muda, dan populer, serangkaian skandal hubungan seksualnya mengkhawatirkan ayahnya yang percaya bahwa Edward akan 'menghancurkan dirinya sendiri' tanpa pengaruh ayahnya.

Pada kematian ayahnya pada tahun 1936, Edward naik takhta menjadi Raja Edward VIII. Beberapa orang mewaspadai pendekatannya terhadap kerajaan, dan apa yang dianggap sebagai campur tangannya dalam politik: pada titik ini, sudah lama diketahui bahwa bukanlah peran raja untuk terlalu terlibat dalam urusan sehari-hari negara.

Di balik layar, hubungan lama Edward dengan Wallis Simpson menyebabkan krisis konstitusional. Raja baru benar-benar tergila-gila dengan Nyonya Simpson dari Amerika yang bercerai, yang sedang dalam proses perceraian pernikahan keduanya pada tahun 1936. Sebagai Kepala Gereja di Inggris, Edward tidak dapat menikahi seorang janda, dan pernikahan morganatik (sipil) dilakukan. diblokir oleh pemerintah.

Pada bulan Desember 1936, berita tergila-gila Edward dengan Wallis memukul pers Inggris untuk pertama kalinya, dan dia turun tahta tak lama kemudian, menyatakan

“Saya merasa tidak mungkin memikul beban tanggung jawab yang berat dan menjalankan tugas saya sebagai raja seperti yang ingin saya lakukan tanpa bantuan dan dukungan dari wanita yang saya cintai.”

Dia dan Wallis menjalani sisa hidup mereka di Paris, sebagai Duke dan Duchess of Windsor.

Raja Edward VIII dan Nyonya Simpson berlibur di Yugoslavia, 1936.

George VI (1936-52)

Putra kedua Raja George V dan Mary of Teck, dan adik laki-laki Raja Edward VIII, George – yang dikenal sebagai 'Bertie' oleh keluarganya sebagai nama depannya adalah Albert – tidak pernah menyangka akan menjadi raja. Albert bertugas di RAF dan Angkatan Laut Kerajaan selama Perang Dunia Pertama, dan disebutkan dalam pengiriman untuk perannya dalam Pertempuran Jutlandia (1916).

Pada tahun 1923, Albert menikahi Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon: beberapa orang memandang ini sebagai pilihan modern yang kontroversial mengingat dia bukan keturunan kerajaan. Pasangan itu memiliki dua anak, Elizabeth (Lilibet) dan Margaret. Setelah saudaranya turun takhta, Albert menjadi raja, dengan mengambil nama George sebagai raja: hubungan antara saudara-saudara itu agak tegang oleh peristiwa tahun 1936, dan George melarang saudaranya menggunakan gelar 'Yang Mulia', percaya bahwa dia telah kehilangan haknya. mengklaim itu pada pengunduran dirinya.

Pada tahun 1937, semakin jelas bahwa Jerman Hitler merupakan ancaman bagi perdamaian di Eropa. Secara konstitusional terikat untuk mendukung Perdana Menteri, tidak jelas apa pendapat Raja tentang situasi yang mengkhawatirkan. Pada awal 1939, Raja dan Ratu memulai kunjungan kerajaan ke Amerika dengan harapan dapat mencegah kecenderungan isolasionis mereka dan menjaga hubungan antar negara tetap hangat.

Keluarga Kerajaan tetap di London (setidaknya secara resmi) selama Perang Dunia Kedua, di mana mereka mengalami kerusakan dan penjatahan yang sama dengan bagian negara lainnya, meskipun dalam kondisi yang lebih mewah. Popularitas House of Windsor didukung selama perang, dan Ratu khususnya memiliki dukungan besar untuk perilakunya. Pasca perang, Raja George mengawasi dimulainya pembubaran kekaisaran (termasuk akhir dari Raj) dan perubahan peran Persemakmuran.

Menyusul serangan kesehatan yang buruk yang diperburuk oleh tekanan perang dan kecanduan rokok seumur hidup, kesehatan Raja George mulai menurun dari tahun 1949. Putri Elizabeth dan suami barunya, Philip, mulai mengambil lebih banyak tugas sebagai hasilnya. Pengangkatan seluruh paru-paru kirinya pada tahun 1951 membuat Raja lumpuh, dan dia meninggal pada tahun berikutnya karena trombosis koroner.

Anne Glenconner telah menjadi pusat lingkaran kerajaan sejak kecil, ketika dia bertemu dan berteman dengan calon Ratu Elizabeth II dan saudara perempuannya, Putri Margaret. Anne berbicara kepada saya dari salon megah di Holkham Hall untuk membahas kehidupannya yang benar-benar luar biasa - kisah drama, tragedi, dan rahasia kerajaan. Sebuah kisah yang dia renungkan dengan selera humor yang menawan dan semangat Inggris yang sejati.

Dengarkan sekarang

Elizabeth II (1952-sekarang)

Lahir pada tahun 1926 di London, Elizabeth adalah putri tertua dari calon Raja George VI, dan menjadi pewaris dugaan pada tahun 1936, atas turun tahta pamannya dan aksesi ayahnya. Selama Perang Dunia Kedua, Elizabeth melakukan tugas solo resmi pertamanya, diangkat sebagai Penasihat Negara, dan mengambil peran dalam Layanan Wilayah Tambahan setelah ulang tahunnya yang ke-18.

Pada tahun 1947, Elizabeth menikah dengan Pangeran Philip dari Yunani dan Denmark, yang dia temui bertahun-tahun sebelumnya, pada usia 13 tahun. Hampir tepat setahun kemudian, pada tahun 1948, dia melahirkan seorang putra dan pewaris, Pangeran Charles: pasangan itu memiliki empat anak di total.

Ratu Elizabeth II dan Duke of Edinburgh bersama anak-anak mereka, Pangeran Charles dan Putri Anne.

Sementara di Kenya pada tahun 1952, Raja George VI meninggal, dan Elizabeth segera kembali ke London sebagai Ratu Elizabeth II: dia dimahkotai pada bulan Juni tahun berikutnya, setelah mengumumkan istana kerajaan akan terus dikenal sebagai Windsor, daripada mengambil nama berdasarkan pada keluarga Philip atau gelar adipati.

Ratu Elizabeth tetap menjadi raja yang paling lama hidup dan memerintah paling lama dalam sejarah Inggris: pemerintahannya telah mencakup dekolonisasi Afrika, Perang Dingin, dan devolusi di Inggris di antara banyak peristiwa politik yang cukup besar lainnya.

Terkenal dijaga dan enggan memberikan pendapat pribadi tentang apa pun, Ratu menganggap ketidakberpihakan politiknya sebagai raja yang memerintah dengan serius: House of Windsor telah memperkuat sifat konstitusional monarki Inggris, dan menjaga diri mereka tetap relevan dan populer dengan membiarkan diri mereka menjadi tokoh nasional – khususnya selama masa-masa sulit dan krisis.


Daftar raja Inggris

Ada 12 raja di Britania Raya dan Britania Raya (lihat Kerajaan Inggris Raya). Kerajaan Inggris Raya yang baru dibentuk pada 1 Mei 1707 dengan penggabungan Kerajaan Inggris dan Kerajaan Skotlandia, yang telah bersatu secara pribadi di bawah House of Stuart sejak 24 Maret 1603. Pada 1 Januari 1801, Britania Raya bergabung dengan Kerajaan Irlandia (juga sebelumnya dalam persatuan pribadi dengan Inggris Raya) untuk membentuk Kerajaan Inggris Raya dan Irlandia. Setelah sebagian besar Irlandia meninggalkan serikat pada 6 Desember 1922, namanya diubah pada 12 April 1927 menjadi Kerajaan Inggris Raya dan Irlandia Utara.


Rumah Windsor

Editor kami akan meninjau apa yang Anda kirimkan dan menentukan apakah akan merevisi artikel tersebut.

rumah Windsor, sebelumnya (1901–17) Saxe-Coburg-Gotha atau Saxe-Coburg dan Gotha, rumah kerajaan Britania Raya, yang menggantikan rumah Hanover setelah kematian raja terakhirnya, Ratu Victoria, pada 22 Januari 1901. Dinasti ini mencakup Edward VII (memerintah 1901–10), George V (1910–36 ), Edward VIII (1936), George VI (1936–52), dan Elizabeth II (1952–). Pewarisnya adalah Charles, pangeran Wales. Putra sulungnya, Pangeran William, adipati Cambridge, berada di urutan kedua pewaris takhta Inggris.

Nama dinasti Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Jerman: Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, atau Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) adalah nama suami Victoria kelahiran Jerman, Albert, pangeran permaisuri Inggris Raya dan Irlandia. Putra sulung mereka adalah Edward VII. Selama suasana anti-Jerman Perang Dunia I, George V menyatakan melalui proklamasi kerajaan (17 Juli 1917) bahwa semua keturunan Ratu Victoria dalam garis laki-laki yang juga warga negara Inggris akan mengadopsi nama keluarga Windsor.

Anak-anak Ratu Elizabeth II biasanya akan memakai nama keluarga ayah mereka, Mountbatten (yang sendiri telah di Anglicized dari Battenberg). Namun, pada tahun 1952, segera setelah aksesi, dia menyatakan di dewan bahwa anak-anak dan keturunannya akan menyandang nama keluarga Windsor. Keputusan itu diubah (8 Februari 1960) sehingga masalah selain yang bergelar pangeran atau putri dan bangsawan kerajaan harus menyandang nama Mountbatten-Windsor.

Editor Encyclopaedia Britannica Artikel ini baru-baru ini direvisi dan diperbarui oleh Adam Augustyn, Redaktur Pelaksana, Konten Referensi.


Monarki dan Akhir Kerajaan: Rumah Windsor, Pemerintah Inggris, dan Persemakmuran Pascaperang

Philip Murphy's Monarki dan Akhir Kekaisaran adalah buku yang diteliti dengan cermat dan disajikan dengan indah yang menceritakan hubungan antara monarki, pemerintah Inggris, dan dekolonisasi Kerajaan Inggris. Dalam 195 halaman yang ditulis dengan ketat (ditambah 45 catatan akhir dan daftar pustaka), buku ini membawa kita melalui, secara kronologis, periode 1918 hingga 2013 (materi tambahan yang menanggapi peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung dijahit dengan hati-hati ke dalam teks sampai momen terakhir). Fokusnya jatuh pada kelas politik Inggris dan istana, dan cara-cara di mana keduanya berusaha untuk membentuk, menanggapi, dan mengukir peran baru dalam lanskap geopolitik yang berubah dengan cepat yang terbentuk melalui proses yang berliku-liku dan berantakan dari pembubaran Kerajaan Inggris. .

Sejarah yang saling terkait dari Inggris pasca-perang, kekaisaran, dan dekolonisasi baru-baru ini menjadi subjek yang semakin menarik. Dalam memfokuskan pada dua mata pelajaran yang jarang tunduk pada pengawasan akademis yang tepat - Ratu dan istana di satu sisi, dan Persemakmuran pasca-perang di sisi lain - Murphy membuat kontribusi baru dan signifikan untuk bidang yang sedang berkembang ini, menyoroti peran yang diperebutkan bahwa keduanya Mahkota dan Persemakmuran dipahami dalam proses transisi Inggris dari kekuasaan kekaisaran.

Buku tersebut menunjukkan bahwa, jauh dari dipandang sebagai periferal oleh para aktor di Inggris, Persemakmuran pascaperang dipandang sebagai kekuatan yang penting, jika tidak harus positif. Sebagai kompas moral, peluang politik, dan penanda kemajuan multikultural, Persemakmuran juga dipahami sebagai ancaman, rasa malu, dan sebagai cerminan dari kemunduran Inggris pasca-kekaisaran.

Untuk istana, dan Elizabeth II khususnya (berdasarkan umur panjangnya dalam peran sebagai Kepala Persemakmuran) transformasi Kerajaan Inggris menjadi bentuk organisasi baru: 'asosiasi sukarela negara-negara berdaulat yang independen dan setara', asalkan peluang.(1) Ini termasuk kemampuan untuk membentuk peran internasional baru, terpisah dari itu sebagai Ratu Inggris (dan kerajaan lainnya) sebagai 'Kepala Persemakmuran'. Pada saat banyak bekas koloni dan kekuasaan menjadi republik baik pada atau setelah kemerdekaan, Persemakmuran memberikan posisi dan profil resmi yang sedang berlangsung di luar Inggris. Yang terpenting, Kekepalaan Persemakmuran juga memberi Ratu lebih banyak kebebasan untuk bertindak dalam kapasitasnya sendiri, daripada hanya atas saran dari pemerintahnya.

Pemerintah Inggris lebih tidak yakin tentang nilai Persemakmuran pasca-perang, dan khususnya, hubungannya yang berkelanjutan dengan Kerajaan. Berbagai aktor di Whitehall menyadari nilai Ratu dan House of Windsor dan dengan senang hati mengerahkan Keluarga Kerajaan untuk meningkatkan hubungan dengan negara-negara Persemakmuran lainnya (melalui tur dan mengawasi upacara kemerdekaan), untuk menambah daya tarik pada pertemuan Persemakmuran, dan untuk campur tangan dalam masalah politik yang sulit, seperti Rhodesia. Namun, pemerintah Inggris tidak sepenuh hati mendukung hubungan ini. Murphy mencatat dalam pendahuluan bahwa buku itu muncul dari pertanyaan yang diajukan oleh catatan arsip: mengapa pemerintah Inggris mendorong republikanisme di negara-negara yang mempersiapkan kemerdekaan ketika ini mungkin tampak bertentangan dengan kebijakan luar negeri yang bertujuan untuk mempertahankan hubungan dengan, dan pengaruh atas , negara-negara yang merdeka dari Kerajaan Inggris? Jawabannya: 'Para pejabat dan menteri khawatir bahwa dengan melibatkan Mahkota dalam politik Afrika pasca-kolonial, mereka mungkin akan membuat Ratu terkena “permaluan” potensial dengan cara yang akan merusak prestise nasional dan melemahkan kapasitasnya untuk menjadi fokus. secara khusus Inggris identitas nasional' (hal. 15, huruf miring dalam aslinya). Dalam beberapa kesempatan, buku itu menunjukkan bahwa pemerintah Inggris memiliki alasan lain untuk khawatir. Misalnya, atas kehadiran Ratu pada Pertemuan Kepala Pemerintahan Persemakmuran yang kontroversial di Lusaka, Zambia pada tahun 1979 (bab delapan), dan tentang masalah apartheid Afrika Selatan pada 1980-an (bab sepuluh), tampaknya istana ditentang secara diametral. kepada pemerintah Inggris, dengan sedikit yang bisa dilakukan Whitehall tentang hal ini. Tidak mengherankan, mengingat publikasi Murphy sebelumnya (2), buku ini sangat kuat tentang politik partai Konservatif dan hubungan mereka dengan Mahkota dan Persemakmuran, meskipun intrik dalam partai politik lain, termasuk pelukan awal pemerintah Buruh Wilson dari Persemakmuran, dan konsekuensi untuk Persemakmuran reinkarnasi partai sebagai 'Buruh Baru' pada 1990-an juga tunduk pada dekonstruksi ahli.

Meskipun fokusnya adalah pada istana dan pemerintah Inggris, buku ini juga mengkaji hubungan antara Mahkota dan Persemakmuran dari perspektif non-Inggris. Untuk Sekretaris Jenderal Persemakmuran dan (selalu menjadi miliknya) staf Sekretariat Persemakmuran, dan politisi di negara-negara anggota lainnya, Murphy berpendapat bahwa hubungan dengan Keluarga Kerajaan Inggris juga kompleks. Di beberapa titik, misalnya selama diskusi tentang mengadakan Pertemuan Kepala Pemerintahan 1977 di London bertepatan dengan yubileum perak Ratu, kekhawatiran dikemukakan oleh mereka yang berada di Sekretariat bahwa kesempatan itu mungkin memberi kesan durbar kekaisaran, membuat Persemakmuran hanya sebagai 'pegawai Inggris dan keluarga kerajaannya' (hlm. 134). Namun demikian, Persemakmuran jelas diuntungkan secara materi dari hubungannya dengan Mahkota. Sekretariat Persemakmuran didirikan sejak didirikan pada tahun 1965 di Marlborough House, sebuah istana kerajaan, atas saran Ratu, dan profil Persemakmuran diangkat melalui kehadiran kerajaan di berbagai acara dan melalui pesan Hari Natal tahunan. Selain itu, Murphy menunjukkan bahwa dukungan dan intervensi pribadi Ratu membuat perbedaan pada momen-momen politik kunci tertentu: menghaluskan suasana dan mendesak tindakan, terutama dalam kaitannya dengan Rhodesia. Selain itu, hubungan dengan Ratu dapat menjadi nilai bagi para pemimpin Persemakmuran di dalam negeri, seperti Kwame Nkrumah dari Ghana dan Ian Smith dari Rhodesia menemukan bahwa hubungan dengan Ratu berguna dalam lingkup nasional mereka sendiri.

Buku ini dengan meyakinkan berpendapat bahwa alih-alih menjadi tidak relevan, Mahkota, dan hubungannya dengan Persemakmuran, dihargai oleh berbagai aktor di Inggris dan di luar yang berusaha menggunakan hubungan ini untuk mendukung berbagai agenda yang berbeda. Aktor dan agenda ini termasuk dari istana, dan Ratu sendiri. Kekacauan dan ketidakpastian konstitusional dari protokol dan deklarasi Persemakmuran, begitu jelas diilustrasikan dalam Monarki dan Akhir Kekaisaran, memberikan ruang untuk kreativitas. Sifat baru-baru ini yang mengejutkan dari banyak tradisi yang ditemukan yang menyertai kepemimpinan Persemakmuran memberikan satu contoh bagaimana kebebasan ini telah dilaksanakan.

Pendekatan Murphy adalah (dalam kata-katanya) sebuah 'sejarah politik konvensional', membuat bukunya tidak biasa di bidang yang berkembang sebagian besar didominasi oleh 'fokus pada budaya dan representasi' (hal. xiii). Menggunakan semacam 'arkeologi dokumenter' (ibid.), penulis menunjukkan nilai dan kekayaan sumber sejarah tradisional. Sebagai 'tikus arsip' yang mengaku dirinya sendiri, Murphy telah mengumpulkan banyak cerita menarik dari TNA, Arsip Nasional Irlandia, Arsip Sekretariat Persemakmuran, serta koleksi lainnya, terutama koleksi politisi Konservatif di Churchill College Cambridge , dan di Perpustakaan Bodleian, Oxford. Buku ini banyak menggunakan bahan-bahan ini, tetapi melakukannya dengan cekatan dalam teks, menjaga keseimbangan yang baik antara bukti, narasi, dan analisis.

Seperti yang ditekankan penulis, banyak yang berkaitan dengan pandangan Ratu telah dihapus dari catatan arsip sebagai akibat dari kerahasiaan dan paranoia dari istana dan Whitehall, membuat tantangan metodologis yang signifikan. Salah satu argumen utama buku ini adalah bahwa hubungan keluarga kerajaan dengan Persemakmuran adalah tentang penggunaan posisi ini oleh aktor lain (dalam pemerintah Inggris, dalam Sekretariat, dan oleh para pemimpin Persemakmuran lainnya) seperti halnya tentang Ratu sendiri, sehingga ketidakhadiran ini sebagian dapat diisi oleh sumber lain. Namun demikian, beberapa poin yang paling menarik bagi saya adalah di mana – melalui forensik Murphy yang menyatukan bukti yang ada dalam banyak koleksi, serta kesenjangan yang jelas – kami tampaknya dapat secara nyata memahami pandangan dan agensi Ratu pada saat-saat penting. Di sini, nilai berkelanjutan dari menghabiskan waktu yang signifikan di antara arsip ditunjukkan dengan jelas.

Meskipun sering membahas tentang perdebatan hukum dan konstitusional – topik yang mungkin tampak cukup kering – teks Murphy tentu saja tidak membosankan. Itu diselingi oleh komentar tajam yang membuat hampir tidak ada aktor tanpa pengawasan kritis. Selain secara halus menyoroti asumsi rasis banyak orang, buku ini juga senang dengan komentar pedas dari pejabat, politisi, penasihat dari berbagai warna dalam kaitannya satu sama lain, dan khususnya rekan-rekan mereka di negara-negara Persemakmuran lainnya. Penelitian arsip Murphy yang cermat memberi kita gambaran yang jelas tentang cara stereotip nasional menghidupkan diskusi Whitehall tentang penguatan republikanisme Kanada misalnya. Untuk menjelaskan hal ini, 'sikap 'kadang-kadang sangat memuakkan' Kanada terhadap pertanyaan rasial dikutip ... [dan] "musim dingin Candian", disarankan, dibuat "untuk isolasi, introspeksi, dan melihat ke dalam"' (hal. .100). Pada kesempatan lain, ketika saran dibuat bahwa anggota Persemakmuran harus berkontribusi pada pembangunan kembali dan pengelolaan Marlborough House, Sekretaris Kabinet mencatat: 'Kami tentu tidak ingin melihat rumah penuh dengan patung-patung dari India atau Ghana, atau bahkan modern. furnitur dari Kanada atau Australia' (hlm. 125). Humor bersahaja ini membawa buku ini dan memastikan bahwa, jauh dari sejarah konstitusional yang kering, ini adalah kisah penuh warna yang penuh dengan orang, kecenderungan mereka untuk bergosip, dan penilaian mereka (seringkali tidak berdasar).

Setelah bab pertama memperkenalkan 'Keluarga suci' dan menguraikan pendekatan metodologis dan teoretis yang diambil, bab dua menyoroti hubungan antara kekaisaran dan keluarga kerajaan, mengeksplorasi upaya untuk membangun mahkota kekaisaran antara tahun 1918–45, dan tantangan substansial (seperti krisis turun tahta) untuk ini. Ini menetapkan konteks untuk bab-bab berikutnya, yang semuanya memberikan eksplorasi tematik dan kronologis tentang hubungan antara pemerintah Inggris, istana, dan dekolonisasi. Dalam bab tiga kita mendengar tentang cobaan dan kesengsaraan dari berbagai tur kerajaan, serta kesalahan linguistik yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan gelar 'Kepala Persemakmuran' sebagai reaksi terhadap pilihan India untuk menjadi republik pada tahun 1949. Bab empat berfokus pada Ratu Elizabeth II – tokoh sentral di sepanjang sisa buku ini – melalui pemeriksaan penobatannya dan tur Persemakmuran, 1952–4. Dua bab berikutnya mengeksplorasi medan menarik dari hubungan antara 'Angin Perubahan' dan Keluarga Kerajaan (menjelajahi misalnya seberapa banyak Ratu tahu, dan setuju dengan, invasi Suez), dan berbagai reaksi terhadap republikanisme (dan memang loyalitas monarki) dari dunia dekolonisasi. Kecenderungan royalis Rhodesia Ian Smith setelah Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Sepihak memberikan kasus yang sangat menarik. Setelah ini, sebuah bab berfokus pada tahun 1960-an, ketika Murphy menunjukkan bahwa sebagai akibat dari pendirian Sekretariat Persemakmuran sendiri, dan keanggotaan organisasi yang semakin beragam, 'Persemakmuran semakin dianggap sebagai sesuatu yang asing dan bermusuhan di dalam Lingkaran elit Inggris' (hal. 110). Pada saat yang sama, dekade ini melihat upaya untuk menyempurnakan peran Kepala Persemakmuran atas nama istana, menarik dua pasukan Inggris ke dalam konflik (bukan untuk terakhir kalinya). Bab delapan, sembilan dan sepuluh fokus pada kehadiran Ratu di Pertemuan Kepala Pemerintahan Persemakmuran di tahun 1970-an, proses 'De-dominionisasi' (tren menuju republikanisme) di Australia dan Kanada, Malta dan Trinidad dan Tobago, serta keinginan bersaing , ditunjukkan oleh Papua Nugini, dan hubungan Ratu yang sering bermusuhan dengan kebijakan Persemakmuran pemerintah Konservatif pada 1980-an. Bab 11 membawa cerita terkini, menjelajahi Ratu dan Persemakmuran pada 1990-an ketika keluarga kerajaan berada di surut rendah di Inggris, dan berakhir pada 2013, ketika peran Ratu Inggris dan Persemakmuran tampaknya lebih aman dari sebelumnya, tetapi Masa depan Persemakmuran sendiri semakin dipertanyakan. Murphy mengakhiri dengan merenungkan keprihatinan saat ini: 'Monarki tidak diragukan lagi memainkan peran penting dalam membentuk Persemakmuran modern. tetapi juga memiliki kecerdasan, keberanian, dan imajinasi para pemimpinnya. Mungkin sudah waktunya bagi Persemakmuran untuk menemukan kembali karakteristik ini' (hal. 195, miring ditambahkan).

Tentu saja, tidak ada buku yang dapat mencakup semuanya, dan saya ingin mengakhiri dengan beberapa poin untuk diskusi lebih lanjut tentang jalan yang tidak diambil. Yang pertama adalah menanyakan apa yang tertinggal ketika sebuah buku berfokus pada sejarah kelas politik Inggris seperti yang dilakukan oleh kisah ini. Mengambil bagian yang sempit memungkinkan keterlibatan yang terperinci dengan kelompok ini, tetapi dalam buku Murphy kami mendengar sangat sedikit keterlibatan populer dengan Persemakmuran di Inggris, dan hubungan antara keterlibatan populer ini dan keputusan politik yang dibuat oleh aktor Murphy. Meskipun ada bagian pendek tentang Commonwealth Games, Commonwealth Day, dan pesan Hari Natal, kami tidak mendengar apa pun tentang upaya Persemakmuran populer lainnya (seperti ekspedisi Comex tahun 1960-an dan 1970-an, di mana Pangeran Philip terlibat erat).(3) Selain itu , ada sedikit penyebutan politik Persemakmuran domestik di Inggris: bagaimana hubungan timbal balik antara Ratu dan Persemakmuran dipengaruhi oleh argumen kekerasan imigrasi dan ras di Inggris? Jika, seperti yang disarankan Murphy, Ratu adalah suara yang cukup liberal tentang toleransi beragama dan pendukung multikulturalisme, bagaimana hal ini diambil atau ditentang oleh orang lain yang terlibat dalam perdebatan ini? Saat pesan Hari Natal disebarluaskan ke ruang keluarga di seluruh negeri, bagaimana pesan Ratu tentang nilai Persemakmuran baik di dalam maupun di luar negeri diterima? Berapa banyak kebijakan Persemakmuran eksternal dimediasi melalui masalah domestik Inggris?

Seperti yang baru-baru ini dicatat oleh Jordanna Bailkin, historiografi Inggris pascaperang dan dekolonisasi terlalu sering diperlakukan secara terpisah – catatan tentang Inggris pascaperang menyentuh Persemakmuran dan dekolonisasi hanya dengan mengacu pada imigrasi, dan mereka yang dekolonisasi cenderung melihatnya. sebagai proses yang berlangsung di arena yang cukup terpisah dari urusan domestik.(4) Fokus Murphy pada Ratu dan keluarga kerajaan menjadi alasan perdebatan tentang dekolonisasi tepat dalam ranah budaya Inggris. Tapi mungkin Murphy bisa mempertimbangkan lebih jauh politik domestik ini (di luar Whitehall) dalam akunnya – mencerminkan pandangan yang berkembang dalam historiografi bahwa dekolonisasi harus dilihat sebagai sesuatu yang terjadi di dalam, dan berdampak pada, Inggris, serta negara-negara yang menjadi mandiri.

Kedua, saya bertanya-tanya bagaimana akun Murphy mungkin berbeda jika diambil dari berbagai sumber yang lebih luas di samping surat kabar resmi dan pribadi. Gambar sampul depan buku (foto kunjungan kerajaan ke Ghana pada tahun 1961, dengan potret Ratu dan Kwame Nkrumah di latar belakang), serta 20 gambar lain di buku menunjukkan kekayaan bukti visual yang tersedia untuk periode ini. Tetapi gambar-gambar itu tampaknya sedikit terputus dari akun (memang, Murphy sendiri dengan bebas mengakui baru-baru ini datang ke nilai dan minat visual). Saya pikir ini menunjukkan. Masih banyak lagi yang bisa dikatakan dan ditanyakan tentang gambar. Satu gambar yang menyenangkan (gambar 2) menunjukkan Ratu tersenyum lebar saat menari dengan Nkrumah pada tahun 1961. Akan sangat menarik untuk mengetahui lebih banyak tentang kesempatan ini, dan tentang konsekuensi dari gambar ini jika dan kapan diterbitkan. Bagaimana itu diterima oleh audiens yang berbeda di Inggris dan Persemakmuran? Apakah upaya dilakukan untuk mengelola gambar-gambar ini oleh pemerintah Inggris dan Whitehall? Peran budaya populer dalam mewakili, mendukung, dan juga menantang narasi elit kerajaan dan proses dekolonisasi telah ditunjukkan dengan jelas dalam sejumlah konferensi dan publikasi baru-baru ini. buku ini?

Pertanyaan ketiga yang saya miliki adalah tentang fokus pada Inggris. Konsentrasi ini memberikan eksplorasi yang sangat rinci tentang keterlibatan dengan Persemakmuran di pihak satu negara. Namun, kekuatan besar ini tentu saja juga merupakan kelemahan terbesarnya, paling tidak karena kepekaan (diekspresikan dengan rapi dalam teks Murphy) tentang kecenderungan yang tersisa untuk melihat Persemakmuran sebagai entitas Inggris. Apa yang akan terjadi, saya bertanya-tanya, jika kita melihat Ratu dan Persemakmuran dari tempat lain di Persemakmuran? Monarki dan Akhir Kekaisaran memberikan sekilas tentang ini, tetapi selalu dari perspektif implikasinya bagi Inggris, atau bagi istana. Misalnya, keputusan Jamaika untuk mendorong agenda republik dipahami melalui kemungkinan berlanjutnya rasa malu bagi Inggris tentang kolonialisme, daripada melalui perhitungan terperinci tentang cara-cara di mana royalti, kekaisaran, dan Persemakmuran dapat dipahami dari perspektif Karibia ini. negara. Akun Murphy akan berguna ditempatkan di samping yang lain (belum ditulis) yang mengambil adegan dari tempat lain di Persemakmuran.

Mungkin daripada bertindak sebagai kritik terhadap Monarki dan Akhir Kekaisaran – yang tidak diragukan lagi merupakan catatan ilmiah dan penting – poin terakhir ini menyoroti nilai berkelanjutan dari mempelajari sejarah Persemakmuran, terlepas dari penurunan label ini di universitas-universitas Inggris. Apa pun sebutannya, masih banyak yang bisa dikatakan tentang dekolonisasi dan Persemakmuran pascakolonial, dari berbagai perspektif geografis, disiplin, dan metodologis.


Daftar Ulang Tahun Royal House of Windsor

Rumah Windsor. Daftar yang dapat dicari dari anggota Royal House of Windsor di masa lalu dan sekarang dan hari ulang tahun mereka.

BULANHARIANGGOTA ROYALTAHUN KELAHIRAN
Januari9Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge 1982
Januari15Marie-Christine, Putri Michael dari Kent1945
Januari20Sophie, Countess of Wessex1965
Februari19Pangeran Andrew, Adipati York 1960
Februari22Katharine, Duchess of Kent1933
berbaris1Sir Timothy Laurence
1955
berbaris1Serena Armstrong-Jones, Countess of Snowdon1970
berbaris7Antony Armstrong-Jones, Earl Pertama Snowdon1930
berbaris10Pangeran Edward, Earl of Wessex 1964
berbaris23Putri Eugenie dari York 1990
berbaris29pulau phillips2012
berbaris31Pangeran Henry, Adipati Gloucester1900
April21Ratu Elizabeth II1926
April22Daniel Chatto1957
April25Putri Mary, Putri Kerajaan, Countess of Harewood1897
Mungkin1Lady Sarah Chatto 1964
Mungkin2Putri Charlotte dari Cambridge2015
Mungkin3Kelly Musim Gugur 1978
Mungkin15Zara Phillips 1978
Mungkin26Maria dari Teck1867
Juni3Raja George V1865
Juni10Pangeran Philip, Adipati Edinburgh1921
Juni19Wallis Simpson1896
Juni20Birgitte, Duchess of Gloucester1946
Juni21Pangeran William, Adipati Cambridge1982
Juli1Diana, Putri Wales 1961
Juli4Pangeran Michael dari Kento 1942
Juli12Pangeran John dari Inggris1905
Juli17Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall1947
Juli22 Pangeran George dari Cambridge2013
Agustus4Ratu Elizabeth, Ibu Suri1900
Agustus8Putri Beatrice dari York1988
Agustus15Putri Anne, Putri Kerajaan1950
Agustus18Mike Tindall1978
Agustus21Putri Margaret, Countess of Snowdon1930
Agustus26Pangeran Richard, Adipati Gloucester1944
September9Henry Lascelles1882
September14Sir Angus Ogilvy1928
September15Prince Henry ("Harry") of Wales1984
September22Captain Mark Phillips1948
Oktober9Prince Edward, Duke of Kent 1935
Oktober15Sarah, Duchess of York 1959
November3David Armstrong-Jones, Earl ke-2 Snowdon1961
November8Lady Louise Windsor 2003
November14Prince Charles, Prince of Wales1948
November15Peter Phillips1977
Desember13Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent1906
Desember14Raja George VI1895
Desember17James Viscount Severn 2007
Desember18Prince William of Gloucester1941
Desember20Prince George, Duke of Kent1902
Desember25Princess Alice Montegu, Duchess of Gloucester1901
Desember25Princess Alexandra of Kent1936
Desember29Savannah Phillips2010

The Royal House of Windsor Family Tree below includes all the major royals from George VI and now includes the children of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, Prince George and Princess Charlotte.

Please look at the Royal House of Windsor Family Tree below. The tree now includes an updated picture of Prince George and a correction to Lord Snowdon’s year of birth and of course his death earlier this year

The House of Windsor British Royal Family Tree

If you have enjoyed reading about the Royal House of Windsor Family Tree or considering copying my family tree, please share your appreciation by clicking on one or more of the social buttons above – thank you.


Royal Rebranding: The Birth of the House of Windsor

By the summer of 1917, the British Royal family was in quite the pickle. Although King George V was the reigning monarch of Great Britain, his ancestry was almost entirely German. This had never proved to be a problem before, but during World War I, anti-German sentiment among the British people verged on hysteria.

German-owned stores were destroyed, and the famously canine-crazy Brits even killed German breeds of dogs. Being a German of any species was a dangerous business in England.

To make matters even trickier, the King’s ties to Germany were still strong, not just an insignificant footnote from his family’s past. In fact, several of his sisters were married to German princes. Even more problematic was that the much-despised Kaiser (Willy to his family) was his first cousin.

In 1914, King George failed to strip the Kaiser of all his British honors of chivalry or honorary commands of British regiments. He would never make that mistake again. In the interest of self-preservation, it was the last time the King would bend to extended family loyalty.

After three years of war, revolutionary feeling was high in Europe, and monarchies were deposed with frightening rapidity. In Russia, the Czar and his family were taken prisoner in 1917. This particular turn of events was especially hard on King George. Both the Czar and the Czarina were also his cousins. George had to choose between offering asylum to “Nicky and Alix" and their children or saving the British Crown.

The choice was clear politically but unbearable personally. The Romanovs were executed in 1918.

The final straw was when George V heard that H.G. Wells allegedly accused the King and his court of being “alien and uninspiring.”

“I may be uninspiring, but I’m damned if I’m an alien!” The King retorted.
Obviously, changes were in order. George V called upon his advisor Lord Stamfordham. They decided their first priority was finding a suitably British name for the Royal House.

As close as they could figure, their current family name was Saxe-Coburg-Gotha – just a wee bit too German for the current climate in Great Britain. Royalty never used surnames, so they asked the College of Heralds to see what they could come up with. The only possibilities they dug up were Wipper or Wettin, which were dismissed as too goofy sounding.

The next idea was inventing an entirely new surname that sounded as British as Big Ben, the Thames River, or … Windsor Castle.

The name Windsor was perfect. There was no existing British title bearing that name, it was British as could be, and it just sounded royal. Windsor Castle was built by William the Conqueror, is the oldest occupied castle in Europe. It personifies a millennium of unbroken British Royal history.

We have ourselves a winner.

So on July 17, 1917, the British Royal family officially became known as the Royal House of Windsor.

King George’s cousin the German Kaiser seemed bemused by all of this and remarked that he planned to attend a performance of Shakespeare’s play “The Merry Wives of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.” That probably didn't get a lot of laughs at Buckingham Palace, however.

The King insisted all other members of the Royal family anglicize their names and renounce any German titles. His Majesty eased the transition by giving British titles to family members, but some gave up (German) royal status to become mere nobility.

Too bad, so sad, sayeth the King.

Many people don’t realize that the House of Windsor, styled as such anyway, is just over a century old. It was widely assumed they were always the Windsors. Undoubtedly this would please King George V immensely, who would feel vindicated for picking such a British – and timeless – name for his Royal House.


The 1917 proclamation stated that the name of the Royal House and all British descendants of Victoria and Albert in the male line were to bear the name of Windsor, except for women who married into other families.

Descendants of Elizabeth II [ edit ]

In 1947, Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II), heir presumptive to King George VI, married Philip Mountbatten (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark), a member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a branch of the House of Oldenburg. A few months before his marriage, Philip abandoned his princely titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten, which was that of his uncle and mentor, the Earl Mountbatten of Burma, and had itself been adopted by Lord Mountbatten's father (Philip's maternal grandfather), Prince Louis of Battenberg, in 1917. It is the literal translation of the German Battenberg, which refers to Battenberg, a small town in Hesse.

Soon after Elizabeth became Queen in 1952, Lord Mountbatten observed that because it was the standard practice for the wife in a marriage to adopt her husband's surname, the royal house had become the House of Mountbatten. When Elizabeth's grandmother, Queen Mary, heard of this comment, she informed British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and he later advised the Queen to issue a royal proclamation declaring that the royal house was to remain known as the House of Windsor. This she did on 9 April 1952, officially declaring it her "Will and Pleasure that I and My children shall be styled and known as the House and Family of Windsor, and that My descendants, other than female descendants who marry and their descendants, shall bear the name of Windsor." Ε] Philip privately complained, "I am nothing but a bloody amoeba. I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children." Ζ]

On 8 February 1960, some years after both the death of Queen Mary and the resignation of Churchill, the Queen confirmed that she and her children would continue to be known as the "House and Family of Windsor", as would any agnatic descendants who enjoy the style of Royal Highness and the title of prince or princess. Ε] Still, Elizabeth also decreed that her agnatic descendants who do not have that style and title would bear the surname Mountbatten-Windsor. Ε]

This came after some months of correspondence between the Prime Minister Harold Macmillan and the constitutional expert Edward Iwi. Iwi had raised the prospect that the royal child due to be born in February 1960 would bear "the Badge of Bastardy" if it were given its mother's maiden name (Windsor) rather than its father's name (Mountbatten). Macmillan had attempted to rebuff Iwi, until the Queen advised the acting Prime Minister [ kutipan diperlukan ] Rab Butler in January 1960 that for some time she had had her heart set on a change that would recognise the name Mountbatten. She clearly wished to make this change before the birth of her child. The issue did not affect Prince Charles or Princess Anne, as they had been born with the name Mountbatten, before the Queen's accession to the throne. Η] Prince Andrew was born 11 days later, on 19 February 1960.

Any future monarch can change the dynastic name through a similar royal proclamation, as royal proclamations do not have statutory authority. ⎖]

Family tree [ edit ]


The British Royal Family Tree

A comprehensive who's who of Queen Elizabeth's family, from her grandparents (the first Windsors) to little Archie Harrison and every cousin in between.

The House of Windsor as we know it today began in 1917 when the family changed its name from the German &ldquoSaxe-Coburg-Gotha.&rdquo Queen Elizabeth's grandfather, King George V, was the first Windsor monarch, and today's working royals are the descendants of King George and his wife, Queen Mary. Below follow the line of succession and explore the many branches of the family over which the Queen presides.

King George V, 1865-1936

The grandson of Queen Victoria&mdashand grandfather to Queen Elizabeth&mdashGeorge V was born third in the line of succession and did not expect to become king. That changed after his elder brother Prince Albert Victor died in 1892. George ascended the throne after the death of his father in 1910, serving as King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India until his death in 1936.

Queen Mary, 1867-1953

Queen Elizabeth&rsquos grandmother Queen Mary was royal by birth (her great-grandfather was King George III). Despite technically being a princess of the German Duchy of Teck, she was born and raised in England. She was first engaged to marry Prince Albert Victor, the eldest son of Edward VII and her second cousin once removed, but after Albert&rsquos sudden death in 1892, Mary agreed to marry his brother, the future King George V. The couple married in 1893, and had six children, two of whom would become reigning monarchs. She died in 1953, one year after her son, Queen Elizabeth's father King George VI.

King Edward VIII, 1894-1972

The eldest son of George V and Queen Mary, Edward became king after his father&rsquos death in 1936, but threw the country into crisis months later when he proposed to Wallis Simpson, an American divorcée. As monarch, Edward was head of the Church of England, which at the time did not allow divorced people with a living former spouse to remarry in the church, and thus the government opposed the marriage. Unable to marry Simpson and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated in December of 1936, and was succeeded by his younger brother Albert, Queen Elizabeth&rsquos father, who would go on to become King George VI. Edward&rsquos reign lasted just 326 days, one of the shortest in British history. After his abdication, he was named Duke of Windsor and married Simpson in 1937. They lived abroad until his death in 1972.

Princess Mary, 1897-1965

The only daughter of George V and Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth&rsquos aunt. During World War I, Mary devoted herself to charity work, visiting hospitals and launching fundraising campaigns to support British soldiers and sailors. She later trained as a nurse, and worked two days a week at the Great Ormond Street children&rsquos hospital in London. In 1922, Mary married Viscount Lascelles, who later became Earl of Harewood theirs was the first royal wedding to receive coverage in fashion magazines like Mode. Those fans of the Downton Abbey movie will recognize Mary from her part in the plot.

Prince John, 1905-1919

The youngest child of George V and Queen Mary, John was diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of four, and was sent to live at Sandringham House where he was cared for by his governess. He died in 1919 at the age of 13, following a severe seizure. His condition was not disclosed to the public until after his death.

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, 1900-1974

King George V and Queen Mary&rsquos third son, Henry was the first child of a British monarch to be educated at school, rather than be tutored at home, and ultimately attended Eton College. He served in the British military and had ambitions to command a regiment, but his career was interrupted by royal responsibilities following the 1936 abdication of his brother Edward VIII. He married Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott in 1935, and the couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Richard. Henry died in 1974 as the eldest surviving child of George V and Mary.

Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, 1901-2004

The wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Queen Elizabeth&rsquos aunt by marriage, Lady Alice was a direct descendant of Charles II through his illegitimate son, the nobleman James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. She married Prince Henry in 1935, days after the death of her father, the 7th Duke of Buccleuch. The couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Richard. Alice died at the age of 102 in 2004.

Prince George, Duke of Kent, 1902-1942

The fourth son of George V and Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth&rsquos uncle. Like his elder brother Henry, George was educated at school, and spent time in the Navy before becoming the first member of the royal family to work as a civil servant. In 1934, he married Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, and the couple had three children: Prince Edward, Princess Alexandra, and Prince Michael. At the start of World War II, he returned to active military service in the Royal Navy and later the Royal Air Force. His death in 1942 in a military air crash marked the first time in more than 450 years that a member of the royal family died during active service.

Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent, 1906-1968

The wife of Prince George, and a princess of the Greek royal house, Princess Marina was the daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. (Prince Philip is her first cousin.) In 1932, she met Prince George during a visit to London, and the couple married two years later theirs was the first royal wedding to be broadcast by wireless radio. The couple had three children: Prince Edward, Princess Alexandra, and Prince Michael. Following her husband&rsquos death in 1942, Marina remained an active member of the royal family and carried out many royal duties across the world, even representing the Queen at some events. She died in 1968 at the age of 61.

King George VI, 1895 - 1952

Known publicly as Prince Albert until his accession, King George VI did not expect to inherit the throne because his elder brother Edward VIII was first in the line of succession.

As the second son of George V and Queen Mary, he was made Duke of York in 1920, after serving in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during World War I. In 1923, he married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, and the couple had two daughters: the future Queen Elizabeth and Princess Margaret. Following Edward&rsquos abdication in 1936, Albert took the throne and assumed the name King George VI. The dissolution of the British Empire and formation of the British Commonwealth were finalized during George&rsquos reign, so he was both the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth. George died in 1952 at the age of 56, and was succeeded by his daughter.

Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother, 1900 - 2002

Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon was born into British nobility, the 9th of 10 siblings. In 1923, she married Prince Albert, the Duke of York, having turned down several previous proposals because she had misgivings about royal life. When her brother-in-law abdicated in 1936, Albert became King George VI and Elizabeth became the Queen consort of the United Kingdom. Upon her husband&rsquos death in 1952, her elder daughter Elizabeth ascended to the throne, and she became known as the Queen Mother. She remained active in public life up to and even after her 100th birthday in 2000 and died at 101, seven weeks after the death of her younger daughter, Princess Margaret.

Prince William of Gloucester, 1941-1972

As the eldest son of Prince Henry and Lady Alice, Prince William was highly educated, studying at Eton College, Cambridge University, and Stanford University. While he later held jobs in banking and in the British civil service, Queen Elizabeth&rsquos first-cousin was also a licensed pilot, and regularly competed in air show races. It was that passion eventually lead to his untimely death. In 1972, at the age of 30, Prince William died in an airplane crash.

Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, 1944-

The younger son of Prince Henry and Lady Alice, Prince Richard initially had a career as an architect, but following the death of his older brother Prince William in 1972, he took on additional royal duties.

That same year, he married Birgitte van Deurs (1946-) whom he met at Cambridge University, and just two years after that, Richard inherited the title of Duke of Gloucester from his father Prince Henry. Now in his 70s, Richard remains active in public life and carries out regular royal duties for his first cousin, the Queen. He and his wife have three children together&ndashAlexander Windsor (1974-), Lady Davina Lewis (1977-) and Lady Rose Gilman (1980-)&ndashand six grandchildren (Xan Windsor, Lady Cosima Windsor, Senna Lewis, Tāne Lewis, Lyla Gilman and Rufus Gilman). The couple resides in Kensington Palace.

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, 1935-

The eldest child of Prince George, the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina, Prince Edward is directly related to both Prince Philip and the Queen. As a grandchild of George V and Queen Mary, he is the Queen&rsquos first cousin, and since his mother was a first cousin to Prince Philip, Edward is also Philip&rsquos first cousin once removed. Edward inherited the dukedom of Kent following his father&rsquos death in a 1942 military air crash. Nearly two decades later, he married Katharine Worsley, and the couple have three children together&ndashGeorge Windsor, Earl of St Andrews (1962-), Lady Helen Taylor (1964-), Lord Nicholas Windsor (1970-)&ndashand ten grandchildren (Lord Edward Windsor, Lady Marina Charlotte Windsor, Lady Amelia Windsor, Columbus Taylor, Cassius Taylor, Eloise Taylor, Estella Taylor, Albert Windsor, Leopold Windsor and Louis Windsor). Now in his 80s, Prince Edward regularly carries out royal duties on behalf of the Queen. He and his wife live on the grounds of Kensington Palace in the royal residence Wren House.

Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, 1936-

Like her two brothers, Princess Alexandra is directly related to both Prince Philip and the Queen. As the eldest daughter of Prince George, the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina, she is both Queen Elizabeth&rsquos first cousin and Prince Philip&rsquos first cousin once removed. Princess Alexandra married the businessman Sir Angus Ogilvy in 1963, and the couple have two children&ndashJames Ogilvy (1964-) and Marina Ogilvy (1966-)&ndashand four grandchildren (Alexander Charles Ogilvy, Flora Alexandra Ogilvy, Zenouska Mowatt and Christian Mowatt). Alexandra is reportedly quite close with the royal couple, and while Sir Angus Ogilvy passed away in 2004, she continues to be an active working royal and resides in St James&rsquos Palace in London.

Prince Michael of Kent, 1942-

Like his brother Prince Edward and his sister Princess Alexandra, Prince Michael of Kent is directly related to both Prince Philip and the Queen.

As the youngest child of Prince George, the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina, he is both Queen Elizabeth&rsquos first cousin and Prince Philip&rsquos first cousin once removed. In 1978, he married Baroness Marie Christine von Reibnitz in a civil ceremony in Austria, and the couple have two children together: Lord Frederick Windsor (1979-) and Lady Gabriella Windsor (1981-). Michael takes on fewer royal responsibilities than his siblings, but he does sometimes represent the Queen at events in Commonwealth countries outside of the United Kingdom. In recognition of this work, the Queen provided Prince Michael and his wife with an apartment at Kensington Palace for a number of years, but after that proved controversial, they now pay rent.

Queen Elizabeth II, 1926-

Elizabeth II is the current Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth. Born third in the line of succession, Elizabeth became the presumptive heir to the throne in 1936, following the abdication of her uncle Edward VIII and the ascension of her father, George VI. In 1947, she became engaged to Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, whom she had first met at the age of 13. The couple were married the same year at Westminster Abbey, and have four children together. After her father died in 1952, Elizabeth ascended to the throne. Currently in her 90s, she is both the longest-reigning and the longest-living British monarch in history, having reigned for more than 65 years. Her great-grandmother Queen Victoria, the second longest-reigning monarch, reigned for 63 years.

Princess Margaret, 1930 - 2002

Queen Elizabeth&rsquos younger sister Margaret was 22 when her sister took the throne, and shortly afterwards became engaged to air force officer Peter Townsend. Because Townsend was divorced, the Church of England would not approve the marriage, and Margaret was famously forced to choose between ending the relationship and losing her royal privileges. She broke off her engagement with Townsend, and in 1960 married society photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones, who was given the title Earl of Snowdon. The couple had two children together, and ultimately divorced in 1978 after a tempestuous 20-year marriage. Margaret died in 2002, at the age of 71.

Antony Armstrong-Jones, Lord Snowdon, 1930-2017

Antony Armstrong-Jones, a.k.a. Lord Snowdon, was the husband of Princess Margaret, and brother-in-law to Queen Elizabeth. Armstrong-Jones was a fashion and society photographer when he met Margaret in 1958, and they married two years later in 1960. The couple had two children together &ndash David Armstrong-Jones (1961-) and Lady Sarah Chatto (1964-) &ndash and four grandchildren (Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley, Lady Margarita Armstrong-Jones, Samuel Chatto and Arthur Chatto), but divorced in 1978. Armstrong-Jones married his second wife Lucy Mary Lindsay-Hogg that same year, and they remained married until 2000. Armstrong-Jones died in 2017 at the age of 86.

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, 1921-2021

Prince Philip was best known as Queen Elizabeth&rsquos husband and consort, but he is also royal in his own right. He was born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, but Philip and his family were exiled from Greece during his childhood, and so he studied in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom before eventually serving in the British Royal Navy. He married then-Princess Elizabeth in 1947, during the reign of her father George VI, and the couple have four children together. When he passed away in 2021 at the age of 99, Prince Philip was not only the the longest-serving consort of a reigning British Monarch, but also the longest-living male British royal in history.

Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, 1948-

The eldest child of Queen Elizabeth, and the heir apparent to the British throne, Prince Charles was born in 1948 in Buckingham Palace. He went on to be educated at a number of institutions including Cheam and Gordonstoun Schools (which his father attended before him) and Cambridge University, before serving in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy.

In 1981, Charles married Diana Spencer, and the couple had two sons, Prince William and Prince Harry, before divorcing in 1996. Charles later married his second wife Camilla Parker Bowles in 2005. Having held the title since 1958, Charles is the longest-serving Prince of Wales in history. He is also the first heir to the British throne ever to have a university degree.

Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961-

Diana Spencer was born on July 1, 1961 into British nobility, as the third John Spencer, Viscount Althorp and Frances Roche's four children. She met Prince Charles when she was 16, and married him in July of 1981, becoming the Princess of Wales. Charles and Diana had two children together, Prince William and Prince Harry before divorcing in 1996. One year later, she tragically died in a car accident in Paris on August 31, 1997.

Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, 1947-

The second wife of Prince Charles, Camilla Rosemary Shand is the eldest daughter of military officer and businessman Major Bruce Shand and his wife Rosalind Shand. She is also the granddaughter of nobleman Roland Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe. In 1973, Camilla married her first husband Andrew Parker Bowles, and the couple had two children, Tom and Lisa, before divorcing in 1995. In 2005, Camilla married Prince Charles in a civil ceremony, and she became the Duchess of Cornwall.

Princess Anne, Princess Royal, 1950-

The second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Princess Anne is one of the hardest working members of the royal family. She is also an accomplished equestrian, and was even the first British royal to compete in the Olympic Games. In 1973, Anne married Captain Mark Phillips, and the couple had two children together before divorcing in 1992. Later that year, Anne married Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, her mother&rsquos former equerry. She currently resides in St James&rsquos Palace.

Captain Mark Phillips, 1948-

Princess Anne met her first husband, Captain Mark Phillips, at the 1972 Olympics in Munich, where he was part of the British equestrian team and also competed individually. The couple married in 1973, and had two children together before divorcing in 1992.

Sir Timothy Laurence, 1955-

The second husband of Anne, Princess Royal. A retired Royal Navy officer, Timothy met Anne in 1986 while he was serving as equerry to Queen Elizabeth. After her divorce from Captain Mark Phillips in 1992, Anne and Timothy married, and although he received no title upon the marriage, in 2008 he was appointed as a personal aide-de-camp to the Queen.

Peter Phillips, 1977-

Peter Phillips is the only son of Princess Anne and her first husband Captain Mark Phillips, and the eldest grandchild of Queen Elizabeth. Peter&rsquos parents reportedly turned down the Queen&rsquos offer of a royal title for their son, hoping instead to enable him to lead a more normal life. In 2008 he married Autumn Kelly, and the couple have two children together: Savannah Phillips (2010-) and Isla Phillips (2012-). He and Autumn have since separated.

Zara Tindall, 1981-

Zara Tindall is the younger child of Princess Anne and Captain Mark Phillips and the eldest granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth. That said, she does not hold a royal title. Her parents reportedly turned down the Queen&rsquos offer for one in hopes that Zara might lead a more normal life. Like her mother, Zara is an accomplished equestrian and Olympian, winning a silver medal at the 2012 Olympics in London, and she has been appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire for her services to equestrianism. Zara married Mike Tindall, a former rugby player, in 2011, and the couple have three children together: Mia Tindall (2014-), Lena Tindall (2018-), and Lucas Tindall (2021-).

Prince Andrew, Duke of York, 1960-

The third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Prince Andrew served in the Royal Navy for many years, including during the Falklands War in 1982, and holds the ranks of commander and vice admiral. He married Sarah Ferguson in 1986, and the couple had two daughters, Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie, before divorcing in 1996. In 2019, he stepped back from his working royal duties following enormous public criticism over his association with convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein.

Sarah, Duchess of York, 1959-

The former wife of Prince Andrew, Sarah Ferguson is widely known by the nickname &ldquoFergie.&rdquo Sarah had known Andrew since childhood, and became engaged to him in 1986. The couple married at Westminster Abbey later that year, and went on to have two daughters. Sarah and Andrew announced their separation in 1992, and were divorced four years later in 1996, though by all accounts they still have an amicable relationship.

Princess Beatrice of York, 1988-

Princess Beatrice is the oldest daughter of Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson, and holds a place in the British line of succession even though she is not a working royal. The princess has a career outside the Palace, and currently works for a New York-based artificial intelligence company, but she also often attends major family events like Trooping the Colour and the annual Christmas church services. In July of 2020, she married her boyfriend Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi in a private wedding ceremony in Windsor, and became stepmother to his son, Wolfie.

Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi, 1983-

In July of 2020, Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi married Princess Beatrice in a small private wedding ceremony in Windsor. He has a young son, Wolfie, from a previous relationship&mdashmaking Beatrice an instant stepmother.

Princess Eugenie, 1990-

The younger daughter of Prince Andrew and Sarah, Duchess of York, and Queen Elizabeth&rsquos granddaughter. Eugenie attended St George&rsquos School with her elder sister Beatrice, and later graduated from Newcastle University. In October of 2018, Eugenie married her partner of seven years, Jack Brooksbank, in a ceremony at Windsor Castle.

Jack Brooksbank, 1986-

Jack Brooksbank first met Princess Eugenie in Verbier, Switzerland, while on a ski vacation. The pair dated for approximately seven years before marrying in October of 2018 in front of friends and family in St George&rsquos Chapel at Windsor Castle.

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, 1964-

The youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip, Edward attended Cambridge University and later joined the Royal Marines, but dropped out after four months. In 1999 he married Sophie Rhys-Jones, and the couple have two children. Prince Edward is a full-time working royal and has recently taken over several responsibilities from his father, following Prince Philip&rsquos retirement from royal duties.

Sophie, Countess of Wessex, 1965-

Sophie Helen Rhys-Jones met Prince Edward while she was working in radio, and the couple dated for six years before marrying in 1999. They have two children together, Lady Louise Windsor and James, Viscount Severn. While she previously had a career in public relations, Sophie is now a full-time working royal like her husband, and frequently supports the Queen, her mother-in-law, in her royal duties.

Lady Louise Windsor, 2003-

The elder child and only daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, Lady Louise is the youngest granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth. She and her brother James embarked on their first royal engagement in 2015, accompanying their parents to South Africa. You might also recognize her as one of the bridesmaids from Will and Kate&rsquos royal wedding in 2011.

James, Viscount Severn, 2007-

The younger child and only son of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, James is the youngest grandchild of Queen Elizabeth. Both he and his older sister Louise embarked on their first royal engagement in 2015, accompanying their parents to South Africa.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, 1982-

The elder son of Prince Charles and Princess Diana, William is currently second in the British line of succession. After attending Eton College and St Andrew&rsquos University, he trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and served in the Royal Air Force, eventually becoming a search-and-rescue pilot. He has since left the military and is now a full-time working royal. In 2011, he married his longtime girlfriend, Catherine Middleton, whom he met at St Andrew&rsquos, and the couple now have three children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis.

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, 1982-

After growing up in Chapel Row near Newbury as the oldest daughter of Carole and Michael Middleton, Kate met Prince William at the University of St Andrews in Scotland. After a long courtship, the couple married at Westminster Abbey in 2011 in a ceremony which was attended by celebrities, dignitaries, and royals from across Europe. She and William have three children together, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis, and Kate now works as a full-time royal focusing on organizations which support young people and mothers, and that help to fight the stigma of mental health issues.

Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, 1984-

The younger son of Prince Charles and Princess Diana, Harry is currently sixth in the line of succession. After attending Eton College like his elder brother William, Harry trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, and served in the British Army where he was twice deployed to Afghanistan, making Harry the first royal to serve in a war zone since his uncle Prince Andrew. In May of 2018, Harry married American actress Meghan Markle in a widely-watched royal wedding. A year and a half later, he and Meghan announced their decision to step back from their roles as working roles, and have since carved out space for themselves in the private sector, inking a deal with Netflix and signing with a speaking agency. In May of 2019, they welcomed their first child, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor the family of three currently lives in Santa Barbara, California. The couple are expecting their second child, a girl, this summer.

Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, 1981-

The Duchess of Sussex broke the mold of the expected royal bride, as a biracial, California-born actress. Markle, who divorced her first husband in 2013, was reportedly set up on a blind date with Harry in 2016, and the rest is history. Mereka telah menikah in May 2018 at Windsor Castle, and Meghan spent a year and a half as a working royal before she and Harry decided to step back from their roles. She now lives in Santa Barbara, California with Harry and their son, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor, who was born in May 2019.

Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor, 2019-

The first child of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor was born on May 6, 2019. He is currently seventh in the line of succession.

Prince George of Cambridge, 2013-

The first child and elder son of Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, George was born on July 22, 2013 and is currently third in the line of succession.

Princess Charlotte of Cambridge, 2015-

The second child, and only daughter, of Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Charlotte was born on May 2, 2015. She is currently fourth in the line of succession.

Prince Louis of Cambridge, 2018-

The third child, and second son, of Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Prince Louis was born on April 23, 2018. He is currently fifth in the line of succession.


How Did the Royal Family Start?

The current Royal Family, the House of Windsor, originated in 1917 when King George V proclaimed the last name of the family to be Windsor. However, the roots of the English monarchy trace back to the eighth and ninth centuries.

Centralized systems of government came into existence in England sometime between 700 and 900 A.D. Offa and Alfred the Great had begun to organize tribes under a single ruler, and Anglo-Saxon and Scottish kingdoms had monarchs by the time of the Norman invasion of 1066. William the Conqueror then became the English king, and his descendants ruled in the centuries that followed.

After the death of Queen Victoria, the Virgin Queen, in 1603, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were united. In 1801, Ireland was also included in the union to form the United Kingdom.

In 1917, King George V issued a royal proclamation that established the House of Windsor, giving family members an official last name. Previously, Royal Family members were only known by the kingdom or dynasty of their origin. The current Royal Family members all hail from the House of Windsor. They include Queen Elizabeth II, and in order of succession, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cambridge and Prince George of Cambridge.


List of members of the House of Windsor (The Lost Prince)

The House of Windsor, the royal house of the Commonwealth realms, includes the male-line descendants of Queen Victoria who are subjects of the Crown (1917 Order-in-Council). According to these two Orders-in-Council, male-line female descendants lose the name Windsor upon marriage.

The line of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, the third son of Queen Victoria, died out in 1974, with the death of Princess Patricia of Connaught, later Lady Patricia Ramsay.

The line of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, the youngest son of Queen Victoria, were not considered members of the House of Windsor, as they had fought on the German side during World War I as Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (except for the Duke's daughter, Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, who was considered a member of the House of Windsor as she remained in the United Kingdom).

Three of the current members of the house of Windsor are Roman Catholic (labelled "CA" in the table), and are thus excluded from the line of succession to the British throne. The remaining 49 (excluding the King) are in the line of succession, though not consecutively. Two of those 49 were previously excluded from the line of succession due to having married Catholics, but they were restored in 2015 when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 came into effect.


Tonton videonya: The Queens speech at the Indonesia State Banquet, 31 October 2012 (Mungkin 2022).


Komentar:

  1. Molrajas

    How can it be determined?

  2. Gwawl

    Sorry for interfering ... But this topic is very close to me. Tulis ke PM.

  3. Niel

    finally appeared an atom was already waiting

  4. Conan

    Pesan ini tidak ada bandingannya))), saya menyukainya :)

  5. Letitia

    Saya minta maaf karena mengganggu ... Saya mengerti masalah ini. Saya mengundang Anda untuk berdiskusi. Tulis di sini atau di PM.



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